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Table 1 General characteristics among men in infertile couples with and without metabolic syndrome

From: Impact of metabolic syndrome on the viability of human spermatozoa: a cross-sectional descriptive study in men from infertile couples

Characteristics Total
(n = 195)
Metabolic syndrome P-valuea
MetS
(n = 47)
Non-MetS
(n = 148)
Age (years) (mean ± SD) 34.73 ± 5.51 36.21 ± 3.82 34.26 ± 5.88 0.03
Infertility type [n (%)]
 Primary 128 (65.6%) 31 (24.2%) 97 (75.8%) 0.85
 Secondary 67 (34.4%) 16 (24.2%) 50 (75.8%)  
Male factor Infertility [n (%)] 101 (51,8%) 25 (53.2%) 76 (51.4%) 0.83
 Mump 19 (9.7%) 5 (10.6%) 14 (9.5%) 0.78
 Testicular infection 1 (0.5%) 1 (2.1%) 0 (0%) 0.24
Sexually Transmitted Diseases 2 (1.0%) 2 (4.3%) 0 (0%) 0.06
 Urogenital surgery 5 (2.6%) 2 (4.3%) 3 (2.0%) 0.60
 Varicocele 11 (5.6%) 5 (10.6%) 6 (4.1%) 0.14
Female factor infertility [n(%)] 120 (61.5%) 29 (61.7%) 91 (61.5%) 0.98
Unexplained infertility [n(%)] 17 (8.7%) 3 (6.4%) 14 (9.5%) 0.77
BMI (kg/m2) (mean ± SD) 22.93 ± 2.96 25.14 ± 3.01 22.22 ± 2.58 0.00
  < 23 [n (%)] 102 (52.3%) 12 (11.8%) 90 (88.2%) 0.00
  ≥ 23 [n (%)] 93 (47.7%) 35 (37.6%) 58 (62.4%)
WC (cm) (mean ± SD) 82.55 ± 8.60 71.21 ± 9.27 62.01 ± 7.81 0.00
WHR (mean ± SD) 0.87 ± 0.06 0.91 ± 0.07 0.86 ± 0.051 0.00
Blood pressure (mean ± SD)
 SBP, (mmHg) 112.64 ± 7.87 112.87 ± 7.85 112.57 ± 7.90 0.82
 DBP, (mmHg) 71.33 ± 5.53 72.34 ± 6.24 71.01 ± 5.26 0.15
Lipid profile (mean ± SD)
 Cholesterol (mmol/L) 4.77 ± 0.92 5.3 ± 0.99 4.59 ± 0.83 0.00
 Triglycerides (mmol/L) 2.21 ± 1.30 3.31 ± 1.15 1.86 ± 1.14 0.00
 LDL-C (mmol/L) 3.22 ± 0.87 3.69 ± 0.86 3.07 ± 0.82 0.00
 HDL-C (mmol/L) 1.22 ± 0.31 1.02 ± 0.23 1.29 ± 0.31 0.00
Fasting glucose (mmol/L) (mean ± SD) 5.47 ± 0.88 6.16 ± 1.18 5.25 ± 0.62 0.00
Alcohol consumption [n (%)]
 Yes 45 (23.1%) 10 (21.3%) 35 (23.6%) 0.74
 No 150 (76.9%) 37 (78.7%) 113 (76.4%)
Smoking [n (%)]
 Yes 34 (17.4%) 11 (23.4%) 23 (15.5%) 0.22
 No 161 (82.6%) 36 (76.6%) 125 (84.5%)
Fresh semen analysis (mean ± SD)
 pH 7.08 ± 0.26 7.11 ± 0.29 7.08 ± 0.25 0.80
 Sexual abstinence (days) 4.20 ± 1.31 3.96 ± 1.25 4.28 ± 1.33 0.15
 Semen volume (ml) 1.84 ± 0.95 1.90 ± 1.04 1.82 ± 0.93 0.70
 Sperm count (× 106/ml) 33.80 ± 12 35.89 ± 14.28 33.13 ± 14.62 0.26
 Sperm vitality (%) 81.44 ± 7.63 82.62 ± 5.93 81.07 ± 8.08 0.27
 Progressive motility (%) 33.26 ± 10.84 35.30 ± 9.61 32.61 ± 11.16 0.14
 Normal sperm morphology (%) 3.89 ± 2.22 4.21 ± 2.33 3.79 ± 2.18 0.22
  1. BMI body mass index; DPB diastolic blood pressure; HDL-C high density lipoprotein cholesterol; LDL-C low density lipoprotein cholesterol; MetS metabolic syndrome; SBP systolic blood pressure; WC waist circumference; WHR waist-to-hip ratio
  2. Values were expressed as mean ± SD and number (percentage)
  3. a Comparison was performed between men with and without MetS using the independent-samples t test and the chi-square test for Gaussian data and the Mann-Whitney U-test was used to compare non-Gaussian data