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Table 1 scRNA-Seq profile of 31 genes known to be involved in idiopathic hypogonadotropic hypogonadism (IHH) as well as genes localized downstream of Nescient-helix-loop-helix 2 (NHL]H2). Expression values correspond to RPKM (Reads Per Kilobase of transcript per Million mapped reads), calculated from the model coefficients using the differential expression model described in [12]. A das]h (“-“) indicates that the gene was not detected in these samples; logFC: log2 fold-change of RNA level; FDR: false discovery rate; n.s.: not significant. HIR Ad, high infertility risk group lacking Ad spermatogonia, LIR Ad+, low infertility risk group displaying Ad spermatogonia, HIR/GnRHa, high infertility risk group, before (prior ) and after (post) GnRHa treatment

From: Molecular clues in the regulation of mini‐puberty involve neuronal DNA binding transcription factor NHLH2

Symbol   HIR Ad- LIR Ad+ logFC FDR HIR/GnRHa logFC FDR
prior post
Class 1:  lower in HIR versus LIR and  lower after HIR treatment
 FGFR2 Fiboblast growth factor receptor 2 2.05 4.3 -1.25 0.0005 4.10 2.75 -0.57 0.01
Class 2: lower in HIR versus LIR but no significant change after HIR treatment
 CHD7 Chromodomain helicase DANN binding protein 7 3.94 6.53 -0.72 0.001 6.46 5.20 n.s. n.s.
 FGF9 Fiboblast growth factor 9 0.58 1.14 -1.06 0.001 0.81 1.20 n.s. n.s.
 FGFR1 Fiboblast growth factor receptor 1 5,26 7.40 -0.49 0.019 7.60 5.94 n.s. n.s.
 MET MET proto-oncogene, receptor tyrosine kinase 0.40 0.98 -1.28 0.007 0.78 0.95 n.s. n.s.
 PROKR1 Prokineticin receptor 1 0.58 1.43 -1.30 0.005 1.11 0.92 n.s. n.s.
 PROK2 Prokineticin receptor 2 0.22 1.23 -2.43 0.001 0.67 0.81 n.s. n.s.
 SPRY4 Sprouty RTK signaling antagonist 4 0.57 1.18 -1.05 0.001 1.20 1.16 n.s. n.s.
Class 3: no significant difference between HIR and LIR and  lower after HIR treatment
 DMXL2 Dmx-like 2 9.84 12.35 n.s. n.s. 13.31 7.58 -0.81 0.001
 CXCL12 C-X-C motif chemokine ligand 12 13.57 13.81 n.s. n.s. 16.84 9.53 -0.82 0.003
 GLCE Glucuronic acid epimerase 20.47 17.38 n.s. n.s. 21.30 11.80 -0.85 0.0006
 GNRH Gonadotropin realeasing hormone 10.37 8.95 n.s. n.s. 10.37 7.42 -0.48 0.035
 GNRHR Gonadotropin realeasing hormone receptor 2.15 2.26 n.s. n.s. 2.94 1.72 -0.76 0.002
 ANOS1 Anosmin 1 13.14 11.36 n.s. n.s. 12.71 7.35 -0.79 0.0009
 LEPR Leptin receptor 3.40 3.31 n.s. n.s. 4.16 2.56 -0.69 0.003
 NDN Necdin, MAGE family member 28.99 29.08 n.s. n.s. 30.00 21.06 -0.77 0.001
 OTUD4 OTU deubiquitinase 4 23.49 23.75 n.s. n.s. 26.78 16.72 -0.67 0.005
 TTF1 Transcription termination factor 1 7.52 7.40 n.s. n.s. 8.76 6.20 -0.49 0.02
 VEGFA Vascular endothelial growth factor A 9.95 11.27 n.s. n.s. 12.22 7.58 -0.68 0.005
 WDR11 WD repeat domain 11 19.99 17.77 n.s. n.s. 21.08 13.03 -0.69 0.003
Class 4: no significant difference between HIR and LIR and  higher after HIR treatment
 CCD141 Coiled-coil domain containing 141 0.47 0.53 n.s. n.s. 0.63 1.06 +0.74 0.003
 EBF2 Early B-cell Faktor 2 0.19 0.22 n.s. n.s. 0.24 0.84 +1.76 2.07E-05
 FEZF1 Fez family zinc finger protein 1 - -      - - 0.14 0.52 +1.84 0.014
 LEP Leptin 0.20 0.26 n.s. n.s. 0.02 0.80 +1.59 0.001
 NHLH 1 Necient helix-loop-helix 1 - - - - 0.09 0.48 +1.95 0.01
 SEMA3E Semaphorin 3E 0.66 1.08 n.s. n.s. 0.23 0.72 +1.59 0.0001
 PCK1 Phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinse 1 - - - - 0.11 0.56 +2.36 0.001
 PCSK1 Protein covertase subtilising/kexin 1 0.15 0.17 n.s. n.s. 0.15 0.71 +2,23 2.02E-05
 TAC3 Tachykinin precursor 3 - - - - 0.23 0.87 +1.87 0.011
 TACR3 Tachykinin precursor receptor 3 - - - - 0.46 0.68 +2.93 0.003
 VAX1 Ventral anterior homeobox 1 - - - - 0.07 0.43 +2.46 3.4E-05
Class 5:  lower in HIR versus LIR and higher after HIR treatment
NHLH2 Necient helix-loop-helix 2 0.18 0.59 -1.65 0.0007 0.31 0.74 +1.25 0.01
NHLH2 target genes
 NTN1 Netrin 1 0.11 0.47 -2.08 0.0005 0.28 0.51         +0.84 0.03
 UNC5D Unc-5 netrin receptor D 0.26 0.57   -1.10  0.003 0.44 0.98         +1.15 0.002
 DCC Deleted in colorectal cancer, netrin 1 receptor 0.20 0.27 n.s. n.s. 0.26 0.62 +1.22 0.0003