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Table 2 Effects of different treatments on sperm abnormalities

From: Rubus apetalus (Rosaceae) improves spermatozoa characteristics, antioxidant enzymes and fertility potential in unilateral cryptorchid rats

Sperm morphological abnormalities
Groups Abnormal head (%) Abnormal tail (%) Tailless head (%) Cytoplasmic droplet (%)
Right testis Left testis Right testis Left testis Right testis Left testis Right testis Left testis
2 weeks
N 4.11 ± 0.59 3.86 ± 0.40 3.73 ± 0.36 3.52 ± 0.26 3.88 ± 0.58 3.81 ± 0.86 4.3 ± 0.90 4.39 ± 1.19
SO 3.84 ± 0.46 3.48 ± 0.36 4.07 ± 0.50 4.87 ± 0.40] 3.28 ± 0.69 3.30 ± 1.62 2.72 ± 0.91 2.43 ± 1.08
DW 0#, c, ¤ 21.41 ± 1.79#, c 0#, c, ¤ 21.17 ± 3.30#, c 0#, c, ¤ 7.56 ± 1.43#, c 0#, c, ¤ 9.44 ± 0.61#, c
VIT E 0#, c,¤ 4.71 ± 0.62*** 0#, c, ¤ 5.90 ± 0.62*** 0#, c, ¤ 5.29 ± 1.27 0#, c, ¤ 5.29 ± 1.27
AE 12 0#, c, ¤ 10.01 ± 2.59*** 0#, c, ¤ 12.32 ± 1.77* 0#, c, ¤ 7.30 ± 1.58 0#, c, ¤ 6.33 ± 1.33
AE 60 0#, c, ¤ 7.34 ± 0.36*** 0#, c, ¤ 8.49 ± 1.89*** 0#, c, ¤ 5.98 ± 1.63 0#, c, ¤ 6.31 ± 0.89
ME 12 0#, c, ¤ 11.12 ± 0.59*** 0#, c, ¤ 15.59 ± 1.54* 0#, c, ¤ 6.41 ± 1.73 0#, c, ¤ 6.19 ± 0.5
ME 60 0#, c, ¤ 6.93 ± 1.13*** 0#, c, ¤ 11.91 ± 0.57** 0#, c, ¤ 4.17 ± 0.40 0#, c, ¤ 3.74 ± 0.75**
4 weeks
N 3.22 ± 0.42 3.96 ± 0.45 3.97 ± 0.46 3.42 ± 0.47 3.25 ± 0.94 3.70 ± 0.61 4.18 ± 1.04 4.74 ± 0.99
SO 3.28 ± 0.27 3.98 ± 0.51 4.28 ± 0.31 5.02 ± 0.53 4.91 ± 0.92 3.58 ± 0.83 3.56 ± 0.77 3.13 ± 0.76
DW 0#, c, ¤ 23.51 ± 1.29#, c 0#, c, ¤ 22.15 ± 2.30#, c 0#, c, ¤ 8.34 ± 0.94#, c 0#, c, ¤ 10.14 ± 1.50#, c
VIT E 0#, c, ¤ 6.80 ± 0.52*** 0#, c, ¤ 4.30 ± 0.42*** 0#, c, ¤ 6.19 ± 1.40 0#, c, ¤ 6.22 ± 1.37
AE 12 0#, c, ¤ 12.04 ± 1.34*** 0#, c, ¤ 11.52 ± 1.86* 0#, c, ¤ 8.91 ± 1.24 0#, c, ¤ 7.66 ± 1.91
AE 60 0#, c, ¤ 5.25 ± 0.47*** 0#, c, ¤ 7.57 ± 1.32*** 0#, c, ¤ 4.80 ± 1.52 0#, c, ¤ 5.10 ± 0.54
ME 12 0#, c, ¤ 12.42 ± 0.67*** 0#, c, ¤ 14.09 ± 1.64* 0#, c, ¤ 7.48 ± 0.97 0#, c, ¤ 8.21 ± 0.75
ME 60 0#, c, ¤ 5.99 ± 0.97*** 0#, c, ¤ 10.82 ± 0.68** 0#, c, ¤ 4.65 ± 0.49 0#, c, ¤ 3.14 ± 0.86**
8 weeks
N 4.25 ± 0.45 4.26 ± 0.56 3.92 ± 0.32 3.17 ± 0.16 3.70 ± 0.46 3.95 ± 0.26 5.09 ± 0.75 5.49 ± 1.09
SO 3.52 ± 0.41 3.47 ± 0.30 3.96 ± 0.39 3.87 ± 0.50 6.41 ± 0.88 5.07 ± 0.94 4.73 ± 0.39 3.85 ± 0.45
DW 0#, c, ¤ 22.47 ± 1.39#, c 0#, c, ¤ 21.17 ± 3.35#, c 0#, c, ¤ 8.56 ± 1.43#, c 0#, c, ¤ 9.56 ± 0.66#, c
VIT E 0#, c, ¤ 4.70 ± 0.61*** 0#, c, ¤ 5.90 ± 0.98*** 0#, c, ¤ 5.29 ± 1.27 0#, c, ¤ 5.29 ± 1.27
AE 60 0#, c, ¤ 7.6 ± 2.15*** 0#, c, ¤ 9.40 ± 2.20** 0#, c, ¤ 7.60 ± 1.17 0#, c, ¤ 4.40 ± 0.75**
ME 60 0#, c, ¤ 5.55 ± 1.44*** 0#, c, ¤ 9.63 ± 1.55** 0#, c, ¤ 7.18 ± 0.55 0#, c, ¤ 1.18 ± 0.59***
  1. All values are expressed as mean ± SEM. Number of rats per group = 5
  2. N normal, SO sham operated, DW distilled water, VIT E vitamin E, AE aqueous extract, ME methanolic extract
  3. #: p < 0.001 compared to normal; c: p < 0.001compared to sham operated; *p<0.05; **p<0.01; ***p<0.001 compared to DW; ¤: p < 0.001 compared to left testis (same group)