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Table 1 Suggested biomarkers for different infertility factors. Tissue expression data was collected from the Human Protein Atlas [30] and Genecards [31] databases

From: Understanding the seminal plasma proteome and its role in male fertility

Gene name Protein name Infertility factor Expression References
Expressed in testes/epididymis but not in other male reproductive tissues
 ALB Albumin Oxidative stress Increased [50]
 CRISP1 Cysteine-rich secretory protein 1 Non-obstructive azoospermia Increased [42]
 EDDM3A Epididymal secretory protein E3-alpha Sperm DNA fragmentation Increased [48]
 FTMT Mitochondrial ferritin Sperm DNA fragmentation Decreased [49]
 GAPDHS Glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase testis specific Obstructive azoospermia Absent [14]
 HIST1H2BA Histone H2B type 1-A Obstructive azoospermia Absent [14]
 LDHC L-lactate dehydrogenase C chain OAT Absent [40]
 PGK2 Phosphoglycerate kinase 2 Obstructive azoospermia Absent [14]
 TEX101 Testis-expressed sequence 101 Obstructive azoospermia Absent [14, 38,39,40]
 TKTL1 Transketolase-like protein 1 NOA, OA Absent [40]
Expressed in different male reproductive tissues
 ANXA7 Annexin-7 Low mitochondrial activity Increased [8]
 CEP135 Centrosomal protein of 135 kDa Non-obstructive azoospermia Absent [36]
 CYCS Cytochrome C Asthenozoospermic Increased [49]
 CLU Clusterin isoform-1 Oligozoospermic Decreased [47]
 COL6A2 Collagen alpha-2(VI) chain Non-obstructive azoospermia Exclusive [41]
 DJ1 Protein/nucleic acid deglycase DJ-1 Asthenozoospermia Decreased [44]
 ERP44 Endoplasmic reticulum resident protein 44 Low mitochondrial activity Increased [8]
 FN1 Fibronectin I isoform 3 preprotein Oxidative stress Decreased [50]
 GGT7 Gamma-glutamyltransferase 7 Non-obstructive azoospermia Exclusive [41]
 GSTM3 Glutathione S-transferase Mu3 Low mitochondrial activity Increased [8]
 LCN1 Lipocalin-1 OAT Increased [46]
 LGALS3BP Galectin 3 binding Oxidative stress Decreased [50]
 M2BP Galectin-3-binding protein OAT Decreased [46]
 MIF Macrophage migration inhibitory factor-1 peptide Oxidative stress Decreased [50]
 NPC2 Epididymal secretory protein E1 Obstructive azoospermia Absent [36]
 NPC2 Epididymal secretory protein E1 OAT Decreased [46]
 PLTP Phospholipid transfer protein Low acrosome integrity Increased [8]
 PSMB5 Proteasome subunit alpha type-5 Sperm DNA fragmentation Increased [8]
 RASGRF1 Raf-specific guanine nucleotide-releasing factor 1 Non-obstructive azoospermia Absent [36]
 RNASE4 Ribonuclease 4 Sperm DNA fragmentation Increased [48]
 SORD Sorbitol dehydrogenase Non-obstructive azoospermia Exclusive [41]
Not expressed in the testes but expressed in the epididymis or other male reproductive tissues
 AZGP1 Zinc alpha-2-glycoprotein Oligozoospermic Increased [47]
 CST4 Cystatin S precursor Oxidative stress Increased [50]
 KLK3 Kallikrein-3 Oxidative stress Increased [50]
 LTF Lactotransferrin Oxidative stress Increased [50]
 MUC5B Mucin-5B Oxidative stress Increased [9]
 PIP Prolactin inducible protein Non-obstructive azoospermia Absent [36]
 PIP Prolactin inducible protein OAT Increased [46, 47]
 STAB2 Stabilin-2 Non-obstructive azoospermia Absent [36]
  1. *OAT Oligoasthenoteratozoospermia