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Table 1 Median semen parameters (interquartile range) according to selected characteristics and to sleep disturbances

From: Sleep disturbances and semen quality in an Italian cross sectional study

  N patients Semen volume (ml) Sperm concentration (millions/ml) Total sperm count (millions) Motility (A + B) (%) Motility (A) (%)
Overall 382 2.5 (2.0–3.0) 30.0 (10.0–50.0) 60.0 (23.8–120.0) 50.0 (40.0–60.0) 35.0 (20.0–45.0)
Age (years)
  ≤ 37 125 2.5 (2.0–3.0) 20.0 (7.0–50.0) 60.0 (20.0–120.0) 45.0 (35.0–55.0) 30.0 (20.0–40.0)
 38–41 114 2.5 (2.0–3.0) 30.0 (15.0–55.0) 70.0 (30.0–120.0) 50.0 (40.0–60.0) 35.0 (25.0–45.0)
  ≥ 42 111 2.5 (2.0–3.0) 30.0 (10.0–50.0) 60.0 (22.5–125.0) 50.0 (30.0–60.0) 35.0 (20.0–50.0)
Reproductive organ diseases
 No 291 2.5 (2.0–3.0) 30.0 (15.0–50.0) a 60.0 (30.0–120.0) b 50.0 (40.0–60.0) c 35.0 (25.0–45.0)
 Yes 91 2.5 (2.0–3.5) 20.0 (5.0–40.0) 50.0 (12.5–120.0) 40.0 (30.0–50.0) 30.0 (20.0–40.0)
Children
 No 310 2.5 (2.0–3.0) 30.0 (10.0–50.0) 60.0 (21.0–120.0) 50.0 (40.0–55.0) 35.0 (20.0–45.0)
 Yes 72 2.5 (2.0–3.0) 30.0 (10.0–50.0) 62.5 (30.0–120.0) 50.0 (37.5–60.0) 40.0 (25.0–50.0)
BMI
  < 25.00 195 2.5 (2.0–3.0) 30.0 (15.0–50.0) 61.3 (30.0–120.0) 50.0 (40.0–60.0) d 35.0 (25.0–45.0)
  ≥ 25.00 185 2.5 (2.0–3.0) 30.0 (10.0–50.0) 60.0 (20.0–112.5) 45.0 (30.0–55.0) 30.0 (20.0–45.0)
Smoking
 No 278 2.5 (2.0–3.0) 25.0 (10.0–50.0) 60.0 (22.5–125.0) 50.0 (35.0–60.0) 35.0 (25.0–45.0)
 Yes 104 2.5 (2.0–3.0) 30.0 (10.0–50.0) 60.0 (27.5–100.0) 45.0 (40.0–60.0) 35.0 (20.0–45.0)
  0–9 cig/day 47 2.5 (2.0–3.0) e 25.0 (10.0–40.0) 51.3 (20.0–90.0) 45.0 (30.0–50.0) 35.0 (20.0–45.0)
   ≥ 10 cig/day 57 2.0 (1.5–3.0) 30.0 (15.0–60.0) 61.3 (30.0–100.0) 50.0 (40.0–60.0) 37.5 (30.0–45.0)
Alcohol intake
 Never 184 2.5 (2.0–3.0) 20.0 (10.0–50.0) 52.5 (15.0–100.0) 50.0 (40.0–60.0) 35.0 (25.0–45.0)
 Ever 198 2.5 (2.0–3.0) 30.0 (10.0–50.0) 75.0 (25.0–120.0) 50.0 (35.0–60.0) 35.0 (20.0–45.0)
Subjective insufficient sleep
 Yes 177 2.5 (1.5–3.0) 30.0 (10.0–50.0) 60.0 (20.0–120.0) 45.0 (40.0–60.0) 35.0 (20.0–45.0)
 No 205 2.5 (2.0–3.0) 25.0 (10.0–50.0) 62.5 (25.0–120.0) 50.0 (35.0–60.0) 35.0 (25.0–45.0)
If answered Yes:       
Difficulty in initiating sleep
 Yes 67 2.0 (1.5–3.0) f 30.0 (10.0–60.0) g 60.0 (30.0–120.0) 50.0 (40.0–60.0) 40.0 (25.0–45.0)
 No 107 2.8 (2.0–3.5) 25.0 (8.0–50.0) 47.5 (17.0–137.5) 45.0 (35.0–55.0) 30.0 (20.0–45.0)
Lying awake most of the night
 Yes 41 2.8 (1.5–3.0) 20.0 (10.0–40.0) 42.5 (15.0–120.0) 40.0 (35.0–50.0) h 30.0 (20.0–35.0) i
 No 130 2.5 (2.0–3.0) 30.0 (10.0–60.0) 60.0 (22.5–120.0) 50.0 (40.0–60.0) 40.0 (20.0–50.0)
Early morning awakening
 Yes 80 2.5 (2.0–3.0) 30.0 (9.0–50.0) 60.0 (23.0–130.0) 45.0 (35.0–60.0) 35.0 (20.0–45.0)
 No 93 2.3 (1.5–3.0) 30.0 (10.0–50.0) 51.3 (20.0–120.0) 45.0 (40.0–55.0) 35.0 (20.0–45.0)
  1. Bold results are statistically significant
  2. BMI body mass index
  3. ap = .002
  4. bp = .04
  5. cp = .01
  6. dp = .03
  7. ep = .05
  8. fp = .003
  9. gp = .05
  10. hp = .01
  11. ip = .04