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Table 1 Links between vacuoles and sperm chromatin condensation status

From: The nature of human sperm head vacuoles: a systematic literature review

  Number of patients Chromatin condensation assessment Vacuolated spermatozoa Spermatozoa used as “controls” P
    Number and size of vacuoles Presence of other potential abnormalities Proportion of vacuolated spermatozoa with a non condensed chromatin (%) Type of spermatozoa used as “controls” Proportion of “control” spermatozoa with a non condensed chromatin (%)  
Cassuto 2012 [18] 26 AB At least one vacuole (size not specified) Yes 19.5 Unselected spermatozoa (obtained after two-layer density centrifugation) 10.1 p<0.0001
Perdrix 2011 [19] 20 AB A single vacuole occupying > 13% of the sperm head area Yes 50.4 Whole sperm 26.5 p<0.0001
Franco 2012 [20] 66 CMA3 At least one vacuole occupying > 50% of the sperm head area Yes 53.2 Morphologically normal and vacuole-free 40.3 p<0.0001
Boitrelle 2011 [16] 15 AB A single vacuole occupying > 25% of the sperm head area No 36.2 Morphologically normal and vacuole-free 7.6 p<0.0001
Boitrelle In press 15 AB At least three vacuoles occupying each < 4% of the sperm head area No 39.8 Morphologically normal and vacuole-free 9.3 p<0.0001
  1. Studies (with sample sizes and methodological details) evaluating the relationship between the presence of vacuoles (or not) and sperm chromatin condensation status. AB: aniline blue staining, CMA3: chromomycin A3 staining. P values in bold type are statistically significant.