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Apport de l’exploration cytogénétique et ultrastructurale dans le pronostic de fertilité des sujets globozoospermiques

Contributions of cytogenetic and ultrastructural exploration in fertility prognosis for subjects with globozoospermia

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Résumé

La globozoospermie est une forme sévère de tératozoospermie caractérisée par des spermatozoïdes à tête ronde avec absence ou présence d’un acrosome rudimentaire. L’objectif de cette étude est d’analyser les spermatozoïdes de six patients présentant un syndrome de globozoospermie et de rendre compte de l’inefficacité de plusieurs tentatives de fécondation in vitro avec ICSI. L’exploration de ces sujets a été réalisée par l’étude du taux d’aneuploïdies spermatiques par hybridation in situ fluorescente (sperm-FISH) pour les chromosomes X, Y et 18, du taux de fragmentation d’ADN par la technique TUNEL ainsi que par l’étude ultrastructurale détaillée de la morphologie spermatique en utilisant la microscopie électronique à transmission (MET). Onze tentatives d’ICSI ont été réalisées chez ces patients, avec un taux de fécondation faible (9,37 %), et aucune grossesse n’a été obtenue. Cette étude a permis de confirmer la variabilité des phénotypes spermatiques observés dans ce syndrome et de faible taux de fécondation après FIV-ICSI, et ce, quel que soit le phénotype.

Abstract

Globozoospermia is a severe form of teratozoospermia characterized by round-headed sperms with absence or presence of a rudimentary acrosome. The objective of this study is to analyze sperm from six patients with globozoospermia syndrome and report the results of 11 intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) attempts. The investigation of these issues was carried out by studying the sperm aneuploidy rate by fluorescent in situ hybridization (sperm-FISH) for chromosomes X, Yand 18. The rate of DNA fragmentation was studied by using the terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labelling (TUNEL) technique and a detailed ultrastructural morphology study of the sperm using transmission electron microscopy. Eleven ICSI attempts were performed in patients with low fertilization rate, (9.37%) and pregnancy did not occur. This study confirmed the variability of sperm phenotypes observed in this syndrome and the low fertilization rates after IVF-ICSI regardless of the phenotype.

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Correspondence to G. Merdassi.

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Zhioua, A., Merdassi, G., Bhouri, R. et al. Apport de l’exploration cytogénétique et ultrastructurale dans le pronostic de fertilité des sujets globozoospermiques. Basic Clin. Androl. 21, 240–246 (2011) doi:10.1007/s12610-011-0145-4

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Mots clés

  • Spermatozoïde
  • Globozoospermie
  • ADN
  • Aneuploïdie
  • ICSI

Keywords

  • Spermatozoa
  • Globozoospermia
  • DNA
  • Aneuploidy
  • ICSI