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Anomalies postnatales du développement de la spermatogenèse associées aux troubles de la migration testiculaire

Postnatal anomalies of spermatogenesis development associated with cryptorchidism

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Résumé

La cryptorchidie, testicule non descendu dans sa position normale intrascrotale, est l’une des anomalies congénitales les plus fréquentes du système génital masculin. Le mécanisme de cette migration est un processus complexe encore mal connu. Plusieurs hypothèses étiologiques ont été avancées pour tenter d’expliquer la survenue de la cryptorchidie. L’existence d’une anomalie de la descente testiculaire, même traitée dans l’enfance, est un facteur de risque de cancer du testicule. Mais elle peut aussi se traduire à l’âge adulte par des anomalies des paramètres spermatiques et une atteinte de la fertilité. Dans la présente revue sont rassemblées les données concernant les anomalies du développement postnatal de la spermatogenèse observées en cas de troubles isolés de la migration du testicule et leurs conséquences à l’âge adulte sur les paramètres de la fertilité.

Abstract

Cryptorchidism, a non-descended testis in its physiological intrascrotal location, is one of the most frequent congenital anomalies of the male genital system. The mechanisms of the normal descent of the testis are still unclear. Several etiological hypotheses have been proposed for cryptorchidism. Cryptorchidism is associated with a greater risk of testis cancer, and is also a cause of impairment in sperm parameters and fertility in the adult age. In this article, we review the cellular and hormonal events occurring from birth to puberty in isolated cases of congenital cryptorchidism that will later, in adulthood, alter both spermatogenesis and fertility.

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Correspondence to R. Mieusset.

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Mots clés

  • Cryptorchidie
  • Spermatogenèse
  • Enfant
  • Adulte
  • Fertilité

Keywords

  • Cryptorchidism
  • Spermatogenesis
  • Child
  • Adulthood
  • Fecundity