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Évolution de la composante lipidique de la membrane plasmique des spermatozoïdes durant la maturation épididymaire

Changes in spermatozoa plasma membrane lipid composition during epididymal maturation

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Résumé

Un des aspects de la maturation posttesticulaire des spermatozoïdes chez les mammifères est l’évolution progressive de la composition lipidique de la membrane plasmique des gamètes males qui permet à ces derniers d’acquérir des capacités fusogènes particulières déterminantes pour la fécondation. Une part importante de cette modification du contenu lipidique de la membrane des gamètes males est assurée lors de la descente des spermatozoïdes dans le tubule épididymaire. Les mouvements lipidiques seront ensuite poursuivis dans les voies génitales femelles au cours d’un processus dynamique, la capacitation, étape préalable indispensable à la réaction acrosomique, et donc, à la fécondation. Cette revue fait l’état des lieux des connaissances acquises par divers groupes de recherche dans le premier volet épididymaire de la maturation lipidique des gamètes males dans différents modèles de mammifères.

Abstract

One aspect of mammalian post-testicular sperm maturation is the progressive change in their plasma membrane lipid composition. These modifications in lipids allow sperm cells to fuse with oocytes during fertilization. A significant share of these sperm lipid changes occurs during their descent through the epididymal tubule. It then continues within the female genital tract during the capacitation process, an essential prerequisite for acrosomic reaction and hence fertilization. This review presents what is known concerning the sperm plasma membrane lipid changes during epididymal maturation in various mammalian models. In the first section, after a brief presentation of the classic eukaryotic cell plasma membrane lipid organization, the emphasis is on the particularities of sperm plasma membrane lipids. The second section presents the different changes occurring in the three major classes of lipids (i.e. phospholipids, sterols and fatty acids) during the sperm’s epididymal descent. The final section briefly describes the mechanisms by which these lipid changes might happen in the epididymal lumen environment. The role played by lipid-rich vesicles secreted by the epididymal epithelium via apocrine secretory processes is highlighted.

Abbreviations

AG:

acides gras

AGI:

acides gras insaturés

AGPI:

acides gras polyinsaturés

AGS:

acides gras saturés

AA:

acide arachidonique

Chol:

cholestérol

DHA:

acide docosahexaénoïque

DPA:

acide docosapentanoïque

EORs:

espèces oxygénées réactives

PC:

phosphatidylcholine

PE:

phosphatidyléthanolamine

PS:

phosphatidylsérine

PI:

phosphatidylinositol

PG:

phosphatidylglycérol

CL:

cardiolipine

DPG:

diphosphatidylglycérol

PL:

lysophospholipides

SM:

sphingomyéline

SOD:

superoxyde dismutase

GPX:

glutathion peroxydase

GPI:

glycosyl phosphatidylinositol

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Correspondence to J. -R. Drevet.

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Rejraji, H., Saez, F. & Drevet, J.-. Évolution de la composante lipidique de la membrane plasmique des spermatozoïdes durant la maturation épididymaire. Basic Clin. Androl. 19, 17–28 (2009) doi:10.1007/s12610-008-0006-7

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Mots clés

  • Spermatozoïdes
  • Maturation posttesticulaire
  • Mammifères
  • Lipides

Keywords

  • Spermatozoa
  • Post-testicular maturation
  • Mammals
  • Lipids