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Evaluation morphologique des spermatozoïdes

Sperm morphology examination

Résumé

L’examen du sperme tel qu’il a été défini par l’Organisation Mondiale de la Santé (OMS) constitue une des étapes clefs dans l’exploration du couple infertile. La morphologie du spermatozoïde a été reconnue comme le meilleur facteur prédictif de la fertilité naturelle, de l’issue en insémination intra-utérine ou en fécondationin vitro classique. Les anomalies ultrastructurales des spermatozoïdes qui sembleraient être les seules anomalies capables d’influencer le devenir de l’ICSI(Intracytoplasmic Sperm Injection) ne sont pas détectables aux grossissements x100 ou X200—400 utilisés au cours de la procédure d’ICSI.

Bartoov et al. (2002) ont mis au point un système capable d’étudier la morphologie fine des spermatozoïdes mobiles en temps réel au grossissement x6600 appelé MSOME pourMagnification Motile Sperm Morphology Examination. Les anomalies détectées à ce grossissement, en dehors des anomalies morphologiques habituelles, sont des vacuoles situées sur les têtes spermatiques dont la localisation, le nombre et la taille sont variables. L’analyse en MSOME pourrait être utilisée comme facteur prédictif du pouvoir fécondant des spermatozoïdes et être réalisée dans l’exploration des atteintes spermatiques sévères avant ICSI. L’ICSI serait classique ou précédée d’une sélection fine des spermatozoïdes avant injection si les spermatozoïdes présentent un nombre élevé de vacuoles.

Abstract

Semen analysis, as defined by World Health Organisation (WHO), is a fundamental step in the work-up of infertile couples. Spermatozoa morphology has been recognised as the best predictive factor in natural fertility, and in intrauterine insemination and classicalin vitro fertilisation.

Ultrastructural spermatozoa abnormalities are the only sperm alterations likely to influence the outcome of ICSI. However, these abnormalities cannot be detected by conventional microscopy (¥100 or ¥200–400). Bartoov et al. (2002) developed a real-time spermatozoa observation system using a ¥6600 magnification called MSOME (Magnification Motile Sperm Morphology Examination). Spermatozoa abnormalities detected with this technique are vacuoles localised on spermatozoa heads with variable number, size and site (nucleus or acrosome).

Spermatozoa evaluation using MSOME could be performed to predict the probability of fertilisation by these spermatozoa either spontaneously or after assisted reproductive technology.

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Correspondence to Rim Saïdi or Elodie Gruel or Julie Roset-Blessman or Nathalie Mousset-Simeon or Sandrine Menon or Bertrand Mace or Nathalie Rives.

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Saïdi, R., Gruel, E., Roset-Blessman, J. et al. Evaluation morphologique des spermatozoïdes. Androl. 18, 158–167 (2008). https://doi.org/10.1007/BF03040397

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Mots clés

  • infertilité
  • morphologie
  • spermatozoïde
  • tératozoospermie

Key words

  • infertility
  • morphology
  • spermatozoa
  • tératozoospermie