Skip to main content

Testostérone circulante et cancer de la prostate. Revue de données récentes

Circulating testosterone and prostate cancer. A brief review

Resume

Des étudesin vitro etin vivo ont monté que les androgènes stimulent le cancer de la prostate. Cependant les études épidémiologiques n’ont pas mis clairement en évidence d’association entre les niveaux circulants d’androgènes et le risque de cancer de la prostate. Toutefois la plupart des études n’avaient pas la taille requise pour mettre en évidence un lien qui peut être relativement faible.

Les études prospectives de l’association entre la concentration sérique de testostérone libre et totale, le principal androgène circulant, et le risque de cancer de la prostate ont été revues.

II n’a pas été mis en évidence d’association significative entre la testostérone libre ou la testostérone totale et le risque de cancer de la prostate dans des études qui totalisent 1 525 cas de cancer de la prostate et 4349 sujets témoins. II n’y a pas d’argument pour défendre l’hypothèse selon laquelle, des concentrations élevées de testostérone dans la gamme physiologique, stimulent le développement et la croissance du cancer de la prostate. Le métabolisme intraprostatique des androgènes peut néanmoins être important pour le développement du cancer de la prostate.

Abstract

In vitro andin vivo studies show that androgens stimulate prostate cancer. However, evidence from epidemiological studies of an association between circulating levels of androgens and prostate cancer risk has been inconsistent, but most studies have likely been undersized given that the association may be relatively weak.

We review prospective studies on the association of serum levels of free and total testosterone, the principal androgen in circulation with risk of prostate cancer.

No significant association between total or free testosterone and risk of prostate cancer was found in studies that together included 1,525 cases of prostate cancer and 4,349 controls.

No support was found for the hypothesis that high levels of circulating testosterone within a physiological range stimulate development and growth of prostate cancer. Intraprostatic androgen metabolism may still be of importance for prostate cancer development.

References

  1. 1.

    ANDERSON D.C., THORNER M.O., FISHER R.A. et al.: Effects of hormonal treatment on plasma unbound androgen levels in hirsute women. Acta Endocrinol. Suppl. (Copenh), 1975, 199: 224.

    Google Scholar 

  2. 2.

    BIANCHINI F., KAAKS R., VAINIO H.: Overweight, obesity, and cancer risk. Lancet Oncol., 2002, 3: 565–574.

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  3. 3.

    BLADOU F., VESSELA R.L., BUHLER K.R. et al.: Cell proliferation and apoptosis during prostatic tumor xenograft involution and regrowth after castration. Int. J. Cancer, 1996, 67: 785–790.

    PubMed  Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  4. 4.

    BOSLAND M.C.: The role of steroid hormones in prostate carcinogenesis. Journal of the National Cancer Institute Monographs, 2000, 27: 67–73.

    Google Scholar 

  5. 5.

    CALLE E.E., RODRIGUEZ C., WALKER-THURMOND K. et al.: Overweight, obesity, and mortality from cancer in a prospectively studied cohort of U.S. adults. N. Engl. J. Med., 2003, 348: 1625–1638.

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  6. 6.

    DORGAN J.F., ALBANES D., VIRTAMO J. et al.: Relationships of serum androgens and estrogens to prostate cancer risk: results from a prospective study in Finland. Cancer Epidemiol. Biomarkers Prev., 1998, 7: 1069–1074.

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  7. 7.

    EATON N.E., REEVES G.K., APPLEBY P.N. et al.: Endogenous sex hormones and prostate cancer: a quantitative review of prospective studies. Br. J. Cancer, 1999, 80: 930–934.

    PubMed  Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  8. 8.

    GANN P.H., HENNEKENS C.H., MA J. et al.: Prospective study of sex hormone levels and risk of prostate cancer. J. Natl. Cancer. Inst., 1996, 88: 1118–1126.

    PubMed  Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  9. 9.

    GAPSTUR S.M., GANN P.H., KOPP P. et al.: Serum androgen concentrations in young men: a longitudinal analysis of associations with age, obesity, and race. The CARDIA male hormone study. Cancer Epidemiol. Biomarkers Prev., 2002, 11: 1041–1047.

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  10. 10.

    GIOVANNUCCI E., STAMPFER M.J., KRITHIVAS K. et al.: The CAG repeat within the androgen receptor gene and its relationship to prostate cancer. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA, 1997, 94: 3320–3323.

    PubMed  Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  11. 11.

    GRUENEWALD D.A., MATSUMOTO A.M.: Testosterone supplementation therapy for older men: potential benefits and risks. J. Am. Geriatr. Soc., 2003, 51: 101–115.

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  12. 12.

    GUESS H.A., FRIEDMAN G.D., SADLER M.C. et al.: 5 alpha-reductase activity and prostate cancer: a case-control study using stored sera. Cancer Epidemiol. Biomarkers Prev., 1997, 6: 21–24.

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  13. 13.

    HEIKKILA R., AHO K., HELIOVAARA M. et al.: Serum testosterone and sex hormone-binding globulin concentrations and the risk of prostate carcinoma: a longitudinal study. Cancer, 1999, 86: 312–315.

    PubMed  Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  14. 14.

    HSING A.W., COMSTOCK G.W.: Serological precursors of cancer: serum hormones and risk of subsequent prostate cancer. Cancer Epidemiol. Biomarkers Prev., 1993, 2: 27–32.

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  15. 15.

    HSING A.W., REICHARDT J.K., STANCZYK F.Z.: Hormones and prostate cancer: current perspectives and future directions. Prostate, 2002, 52: 213–235.

    PubMed  Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  16. 16.

    IRANI J., RAVERY V., PARIENTE J.L. et al.: Effect of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory agents and finasteride on prostate cancer risk. J. Urol., 2002, 168: 1985–1988.

    PubMed  Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  17. 17.

    KAAKS R., LUKANOVA A., SOMMERSBERG B.: Plasma androgens, IGF-I, body size and prostate cancer risk: a synthetic review. Prostate Cancer Prostatic. Dis., 2000, 3: 157–172.

    PubMed  Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  18. 18.

    KYPRIANOU N., ENGLISH H.F., ISAACS J.T.: Programmed cell death during regression of PC-82 human prostate cancer following androgen ablation. Cancer Res., 1990, 50: 3748–3753.

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  19. 19.

    LUCIA M.S., BOSTWICK D.G., BOSLAND M. et al.: Workgroup I: rodent models of prostate cancer. Prostate, 1998, 36: 49–55.

    PubMed  Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  20. 20.

    MAKRIDAKIS N.M., REICHARDT J.K.: Molecular epidemiology of hormone-metabolic loci in prostate cancer. Epidemiol. Rev., 2001, 23: 24–29.

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  21. 21.

    MONTGOMERY J.S., PRICE D.K., FIGG W.D.: The androgen receptor gene and its influence on the development and progression of prostate cancer. J. Pathol., 2001, 195: 138–148.

    PubMed  Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  22. 22.

    MORALES A.: Androgen replacement therapy and prostate safety. Eur. Urol., 2002, 41: 113–120.

    PubMed  Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  23. 23.

    MORLEY J.E., PATRICK P., PERRY H.M.3.: Evaluation of assays available to measure free testosterone. Metabolism, 2002, 51: 554–559.

    PubMed  Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  24. 24.

    NAIR B., WILT. T., MACDONALD R. et al.: Early versus deferred androgen suppression in the treatment of advanced prostatic cancer. The Cochrane database of systematic reviews, 2002, Computer File 1: CD003506.

  25. 25.

    NOMURA A.M., STEMMERMANN G.N., CHYOU P.H. et al.: Serum androgens and prostate cancer. Cancer Epidemiol. Biomarkers Prev., 1996, 5: 621–625.

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  26. 26.

    NORMAN R.W., COAKES K.E., WRIGHT A.S. et al.: Androgen metabolism in men receiving finasteride before prostatectomy. J. Urol., 1993, 150: 1736–1739.

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  27. 27.

    STATTIN P., LUMME S., TENKANEN L. et al.: High levels of circulating testosterone are not associated with increased prostate cancer risk: A pooled prospective study. Int. J. Cancer, 2004, 108: 418–424.

    PubMed  Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  28. 28.

    SINNECKER G.: Stability of sex-hormone-binding globulin in serum and plasma. Clin. Chem., 1989, 35: 1253–1254.

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  29. 29.

    THOMPSON I.M., GOODMAN P.J., TANGEN C.M. et al.: The influence of finasteride on the development of prostate cancer. N. Engl. J. Med., 2003, 349: 215–224.

    PubMed  Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  30. 30.

    UKKOLA O., GAGNON J., RANKINEN T. et al.: Age, body mass index, race and other determinants of steroid hormone variability: the HERITAGE Family Study. Eur. J. Endocrinol., 2001, 145: 1–9.

    PubMed  Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  31. 31.

    VATTEN L.J., URSIN G., ROSS R.K. et al.: Androgens in serum and the risk of prostate cancer: a nested case-control study from the Janus serum bank in Norway. Cancer Epidemiol. Biomarkers Prev., 1997, 6: 967–969.

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  32. 32.

    VERMEULEN A.: Androgen replacement therapy in the aging male-a critical evaluation. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab., 2001, 86: 2380–2390.

    PubMed  Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  33. 33.

    VERMEULEN A., VERDONCK G.: Representativeness of a single point plasma testosterone level for the long term hormonal milieu in men. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab., 1992, 74: 939–942.

    PubMed  Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  34. 34.

    VERMEULEN A., VERDONCK L., KAUFMAN J.M.: A critical evaluation of simple methods for the estimation of free testosterone in serum. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. 1999, 84: 3666–3672.

    PubMed  Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  35. 35.

    WEBBER M.M., BELLO D., QUADER S.: Immortalized and tumorigenic adult human prostatic epithelial cell lines: characteristics and applications. Part I. Cell markers and immortalized nontumorigenic cell lines. Prostate, 1996, 29: 386–394.

    PubMed  Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

Download references

Author information

Affiliations

Authors

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Pär Stattin.

Additional information

Communication au XXo Congrès de la Société d’Andrologie de Langue Française, Orléans, 11–13 Décembre 2003.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Cite this article

Stattin, P. Testostérone circulante et cancer de la prostate. Revue de données récentes. Androl. 14, 381–387 (2004). https://doi.org/10.1007/BF03035168

Download citation

Mots Clés

  • cancer de la prostate
  • androgènes
  • testostérone
  • épidémiologie
  • études prospectives

Key words

  • prostate cancer
  • androgens
  • testosterone
  • epidemiology
  • prospective studies