Skip to main content

Advertisement

Augmentation de l’incidence du cancer du testicule: état de la question

Increase of incidence rates of testis cancer

Resume

Bien que le cancer du testicule fasse partie des tumeurs rares, il représente la tumeur la plus fréquente de l’homme jeune. Son incidence parait augmenter depuis le début du siècle dans les pays occidentaux, avec une accentuation de cette tendance depuis les années 50. L’augmentation de l’incidence affecte particulièrement la classe d’âge des adolescents et des hommes jeunes. Les données recueillies dans les pays en voie de développement sont encore très parcellaires, mais elles semblent confirmer que les hommes de race noire et asiatique aient une incidence du cancer du testicule plus faible que les hommes de race blanche. Les raisons de l’augmentation de l’incidence du cancer du testicule constatée dans de nombreux pays restent inconnues, bien que de forts soupçons pèsent sur des facteurs environnementaux, qui pourraient également retentir sur la fertilité masculine, et d’autre tumeurs de la sphère génitale (sein, endomètre, prostate).

Abstract

Although germ cell cancer is rare (about 1% of cancers in male), it is the commonest cancer in young man. Many studies in Europe, Northern America and Australia show that incidence rates of testis cancer are climbing. In Northern Europe and America, where cancer registration exist since the fifties, it is showed that overall age-adjusted incidence rate of testis cancer has increased more than 3 fold during the past 50 years. This increase affect particularly teenagers and young men. The increase of incidence rates is less documented in under developed countries but recent studies seem to confirm an increase of incidence rates in many parts of the world, even if testis cancer remain rarer in non Caucasian populations.

Etiologies of a such increase are still unknown, but arguments point in view a possible relation between environmental hormone disrupters and many hormonodependent cancers, such as testicular neoplasm, the cancer of the breast or even prostate cancer. Epidemiological studies with large sample size are needed to identify risk factors responsible for the increase of incidence rates of testis cancer.

References

  1. 1.

    ADAMI H.O., BERGSTRÖM R., MÖHNER M.et al.: Testicular cancer in nine northern european countries. Int. J. Cancer, 1994, 59: 33–38.

  2. 2.

    ANGWAFO F.F., TAKONGMO S., MBAKOP A., NGU V.A.: Testes tumours in a sub-saharan african city (Yaounde). Eur. Urol., 1996, 30: 345–348.

  3. 3.

    BACHAUD J.M., BERTHIER F., SOULIE M.et al.: Second non-germ cell malignancies in patients treated for stage I–II testicular seminoma. Radiother. Oncol., 1999, 50: 191–197.

  4. 4.

    BERGSTRÖM R., ADAMI H.O., MÖHNER M.et al.: Increase in testicular cancer incidence in six european countries: a birth cohort phenomenon. J. Natl. Cancer Inst., 1996, 88: 727–733.

  5. 5.

    BRIDGES P.J., SHARIFI R., RAZZAQ A., GUINAN P.: Decreased survival of black americans with testicular cancer. J. Urol., 1998, 159: 1221–1223.

  6. 6.

    COLEMAN M.P., ESTEVE J., DAMIECKI P., ARSLAN A., RENARD H.: Trends in cancer incidence and mortality. IARC scientific publications, 1993, 121: 521–542.

  7. 7.

    FISCHER C.G., WAECHTER W., KRAUS S.et al.: Urologic tumours in the Federal Republic of Germany. Cancer, 1998, 82: 775–783.

  8. 8.

    GRIGOR K.M.: A new classification of germ cell tumours of the testis. Eur. Urol., 1993, 23: 93–103.

  9. 9.

    HARDING M., HOLE D., GILLIS C.: The epidemiology of non seminomatous germ cell tumours in the west of Scotland 1975–89. Br. J. Canc., 1995, 72: 1559–1562.

  10. 10.

    HAWKINS C., MIASKOWSKI C. Testicular cancer: A review. O.N.F., 1996, 23: 1203–1311.

  11. 11.

    HEDINGER C.E.: Problems in the classification of germ cell tumours. Eur. Urol., 1993, 23 (suppl. 2): 2–4.

  12. 12.

    HOFF WANDERAS E., TRETLI S., FOSSA S.D.: Trends in incidence of testicular cancer in Norway 1955–1992. Eur. J. Canc., 1995, 31A: 2044–2048.

  13. 13.

    JOUANNET P., AUGER J.: Lincidence du cancer du testicule augmente-t-elle en France? Presse Med., 1995, 24: 1133.

  14. 14.

    LEVI F., TE V.C., LA VECCHIA C.: Testicular cancer trends in the Canton of Vaud, Switzerland, 1974–1987. Br. J. Cancer. 1990, 62: 871–873.

  15. 15.

    MAGOHA G.A.O.: Testicular cancer in nigerians. East Afr. Med. J., 1995, 72: 554–556.

  16. 16.

    MILLER W.R., SHARPE R.M.: Environmental oestrogens and human reproductive cancers. Endocr. Relat. Cancer, 1998, 5: 69–96.

  17. 17.

    MØLLER H., JØRGENSEN N., FORMAN D.: Trends in incidence of testicular cancer in boys and adolescent men. Int. J. Cancer, 1995, 61: 761–764.

  18. 18.

    PRENER A., STORM H.H., NIELSEN N.H.: Cancer of the male genital tract in circumpolar inuit. Acta Oncol., 1996, 35: 589–593.

  19. 19.

    PLESKO I., ONDRUS D., BOYLE P.: Testicular-cancer incidence and mortality in Slovakia, 1968–90. Lancet, 1996, 347: 900–901.

  20. 20.

    RAHMANI Z., HEDELIN G., MENEGOZ F., RAVERDY N.: Survie et facteurs pronostiques du cancer des cellules germinales du testicule dans les départements du Bas-Rhin, de l’Isère et de la Somme. Ann. Urol., 1999, 33: 116–128.

  21. 21.

    TIMOTHY R., OLIVER D.: Testis Cancer. Curr. Opin. Oncol., 1997, 9: 287–294.

  22. 22.

    SCHILL H., ARBORIO M., GROS P., GRIPPARI J.L.: Anatomie pathologique des tumeurs du testicule. Arch. Anat. Cytol. Path., 1992, 40: 195–201.

  23. 23.

    STONE J.M., SANDEMAN T.F., IRONSIDE P., CRUICKSHANK D.G., MATTHEWS J.P.: Time trends in accuracy of classification of testicular tumours, with clinical and epidemiological implications. Br. J. Cancer, 1992, 66: 396–401.

  24. 24.

    STONE J.M., CRUICKSHANK D.G., SANDEMAN T.F., MATTHEWS J.P.: Trebling of the incidence of testicular cancer in Victoria, Australia (1950–1985). Cancer, 1991, 68: 211–219.

  25. 25.

    WEIR H.K., MARRETT L.D., MORAVAN V.: Trends in the incidence of testicular germ cell cancer in Ontario by histologic subgroup, 1964–1996. C.M.A.J., 1999, 160: 201–205.

  26. 26.

    WILKINSON T.J., COLLS B.M., SCHLUTER P.J.: Increased incidence of germ cell testicular cancer in New Sealand Maoris. Br. J. Cancer, 1992, 65: 769–771.

  27. 27.

    ZATONSKI W., JEZIORSKI K., TYCZYNSKI J.: Testicular cancer in Poland. Lancet, 1990, 336: 183.

  28. 28.

    ZHENG T., HOLFORD T.R., MA Z.et al.: Continuing increase in incidence of germ-cell testis cancer in young adults: experience from connecticut, USA, 1935–1992. Int. J. Cancer, 1996, 65: 723–729.

Download references

Author information

Correspondence to P. F. Thonneau.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Mots-clés

  • cancer du testicule
  • épidémiologie
  • reproduction humaine
  • perturbateurs endocriniens

Key words

  • testicular neoplasm
  • epidemiology
  • incidence rates