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Environnement et Spermatogenèse

Environment and spermatogenesis

Résumé

Plusieurs études récentes rapportent une altération de l’appareil reproducteur chez le mâle ainsi que des différences régionales suggérant un lien entre environnement et spermatogenèse. Les histoires du dibromochloropopane, du distilbène, du gossypol, démontrent l’influence d’une exposition professionnelle, médicamenteuse ou d’un mode de vie sur l’appareil reproducteur. Dans cette revue sont envisagés les facteurs chimiques (pesticides, métaux, solvants ...) physiques (radiations ionisantes, non ionisantes, chaleur), et les éléments du mode de vie (chaleur, position, habillement, alcool, tabac, stress, sport, alimentation) pouvant avoir une action délétère sur la spermatogenèse. L’hypothèse des perturbateurs endocriniens est discutée à la lumière d’études récentes faisant état de différences régionales. Les liens entre environement et spermatogenèse posent la question du type d’études à mener et celle des outils à utiliser. Si des études pluridisciplinaires sont encore nécessaires afin de précisément déterminer le rôle de ces facteurs dans la décroissance séculaire et les variations régionales de la spermatogenèse, il est suggéré que le sperme puisse être un indicateur de santé publique et que le principe de précaution soit institué et se traduise concrètement: 1) par une réelle action de prévention en milieu professionnel, 2) par l’évitement d’un facteur de risque découvert lors des consultations pour infécondité, 3) par la non-utilisation de substances n’ayant pas fait la preuve de leur innocuité dans les études toxicologiques chez l’animal. Par ailleurs, la mise en place d’une spermovigilance pourrait être souhaitable.

Abstract

An alteration of the male reproductive system as well as regional differences in this alterations were recently reported in several studies. This suggests a relationship between environmental conditions and spermatogenesis. Histories of dibromochloropropane distilbene and gossypol are indicative of the influence of occupational and drug exposure, or of the life style on the male reproductive tract. The present review deals with chemical (pesticides, metals,...), physical (ionising and non-ionising radiation’s, endogenous heat) and life style factors (exogenous heat, posture, clothing, alcohol, tobacco, stress, sport, nutrition) susceptible to have a deleterious effect on spermatogenesis. Besides, the hypothesis of endocrine disrupters is discussed with inclusion of the information of regional differences from recent studies. While further studies are required to precisely determine the function of the quoted factors in the secular decrease and regional variations of spermatogenesis, it is suggested that sperm is an indicator of public health and that the principle of precaution is to be considered with the usual implication: 1) effective preventive action in occupational world, 2) avoiding of a risk factor discovered during infecondity consulting, 3) non use of substances which innocuity is not proved by toxicologic studies in animals.

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Correspondence to L. Bujan.

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Mots clés

  • environnement
  • infertilité
  • sperme déclin
  • facteur de risque
  • stérilité
  • toxiques
  • mode de vie
  • profession
  • revue

Key-words

  • environment
  • sperm decline
  • infertility
  • sperm
  • risk factors
  • occupational risks
  • life style factors
  • review