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La réaction acrosomique

The acrosome reaction. Review of the different methods of evaluation and teh interest of acrosomal investigation

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La capacité des spermatozoïdes à accomplir la réaction acrosomique (RA) au contact de la membrane pellucide de l’ovocyte représente une fonction essentielle pour la réalisation de la fécondation. Plusieurs méthodes sont disponibles pour évaluer le statut acrosomique; chaque méthode détecte une étape de la réaction qui est un processus continu. La multiplicité et la relative spécificité des différentes techniques rendent délicate la comparaison des résultats en valeur absolue.

La réaction est Ca++ dépendante d’où l’intérêt pour l’utilisation des ionophores calciques. Ils permettent une étude dynamique qui donne une meilleure appréciation de la capacité des spermatozoïdes à réagir en présence d’un inducteur.

Compte tenu de l’importance de cette réaction pour la réussite de la fécondation, plusieurs équipes ont cherché à corréler le statut acrosomique avec le pouvoir fécondant des spermatozoïdes. Les résultats montrent que les spermatozoïdes hypofécondants manifestent une réponse diminuée à l’induction de la RA.

Des travaux systématiques avec un protocole bien défini semble nécessaires pour pouvoir comparer des résultats multicentriques et établir la valeur pronostique de cet examen.

Abstract

The acrosome reacting capacity of spermatozoa is essential for the fertilization of the oocyte. Several methods are available for the evaluation of the acrosomal status; each method detects a step of the reaction which is a continuous process. Due to the diversity and the relative specificity of each technique, it is difficult to compare results in absolute values.

The reaction is Ca++ dependent. The use of Ca++ ionophores is valuable for a dynamic study which gives a better appreciation of the capacity of spermatozoa to react to a specific stimulus.

Many authors have attempted to correlate the acrosomal status to the fertilizing ability of spermatozoa. The results show a reduced induction of AR in hypofertile sperm.

More studies with standard materials and methods are needed in order to confirm the diagnostic value of this test.

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Correspondence to S. Pilikian.

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Pilikian, S. La réaction acrosomique. Androl. 4, 37–46 (1994) doi:10.1007/BF03034618

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Mots clés

  • Spermatozoïdes humains
  • tests de réaction acrosomique
  • réaction acrosomique
  • fécondationin vitro

Key words

  • Human spermatozoa
  • acrosome raction tests
  • acrosome reaction — in vitro fertilization