Skip to main content

Physiologie de la Barrière Sang-Testicule

The Physiology of the Blood-Testis Barrier

Résumé

Des preuves de l’existence d’une barrière entre la lumière des tubes séminifères et le sang sont représentées par: la coloration inégale des testicules après injection de certains colorants, la distribution des substances radioactives dans le testicule, la composition des fluides du rete testis et de la lumière des tubes, la vitesse de pénétration de différentes substances dans ces fluides, et la présence de jonctions spécialisées entre les cellules de Sertoli qui bloquent la pénétration du lanthanum et d’autres marqueurs opaques aux électrons dans les tubules. Cette barrière se développe au moment de la puberté. Cependant, les cellules endothéliales du testicule ont des caractéristiques qui sont retrouvées dans les cellules endothéliales du cerveau qui forment la barrière sang-cerveau. Le tissue péritubulaire possède aussi un système spécifique pour le transport de l’urée, et ces deux tissus peuvent aussi réguler l’entrée des substances dans le testicule. La barrière reste effective dans certaines circonstances dans lesquelles la spermatogenèse est perturbée, mais la barrière est moins effective pendant la phase de régression testiculaire chez les espèces à reproduction saisonnière. Il existe aussi des traitements qui rompent la barrière en perturbant la spermatogenèse. Il faut que les spermatogonies injectées dans le rete passent à travers la barrière Sertolienne pour rétablir la spermatogenèse dans les testicules infertiles, mais les cellules leucémiques injectées dans le rete peuvent aussi passer de la lumière dans l’interstitium où une récidive de la maladie peut survenir.

Abstract

There is evidence for the existence of a barrier between the blood and the lumina of the seminiferous tubules, from the uneven coloration of the testis after injection of some dyes, from the distribution of some radioactive markers, from the composition of the fluids from the rete testis and the seminiferous tubules, from the rate of penetration of various substances into these fluids, and from the presence of specialized junctions between the Sertoli cells, which block the penetration of lanthanum and other electron-opaque markers into the tubules. This barrier develops only at the time of puberty. However, the endothelial cells in the testis share certain characteristics with the endothelial cells of the brain, which form the blood-brain barrier. Also, the peritubular tissue has a specific transport system for urea, and these two tissues may also regulate the entry of substances into the testis. The barrier remains effective in some circumstances where spermatogenesis is disrupted, but it is less effective outside the breeding season in seasonal breeders. There are also some treatments which break down the barrier and disrupt spermatogenesis. Spermatogonia injected into the rete must pass through the barrier to re-establish spermatogenesis in infertile testes, but leukaemic cells injected into the rete can also pass from the lumen of the tubules into the interstitium, where the disease then recurs.

Références

  1. 1.

    BANKS W.A., McLAY R.N., KASTIN A.J., SARMIENTO U., SCULLY S.: Passage of leptin across the blood testis barrier. Am. J. Physiol., 1999, 276: E1099-E1104.

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  2. 2.

    BUSTAMANTE J.C., SETCHELL B.P.: The uptake of amino acids, in particular leucine, by isolated perfused testes of rats. J. Androl., 2000, 21: 452–463.

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  3. 3.

    CAVICCHIA J.C., SACERDOTE F.L.: Correlation between blood-testis barrier development and onset of the first spermatogenic wave in normal and in Busulfan-treated rats: a lanthanum and freeze-fracture study. Anat. Rec., 1991, 230: 361–368.

    PubMed  Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  4. 4.

    CAVICCHIA J.C., SACERDOTE F.L., ORTIZ L.: The human blood-testis barrier in impaired spermatogenesis. Ultrastruct. Pathol., 1996, 20: 211–218.

    PubMed  Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  5. 5.

    DYM M., FAWCETT D.M.: The blood-testis barrier in the rat and the physiological compartmentation of the seminiferous epithelium. Biol. Reprod., 1970, 3: 308–326.

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  6. 6.

    DYM M., CAVICCHIA J.C.: Further observations on the blood-testis barrier in monkeys. Biol. Reprod., 1977, 17: 390–403.

    PubMed  Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  7. 7.

    ENG F., WIEBE J.P., ALIMA L.H.: Long-term alterations in the permeability of the blood-testis barrier following a single intratesticular injection of dilute aqueous glycerol. J. Androl., 1994, 15: 311–317.

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  8. 8.

    FENTON R.A., HOWORTH A., COOPER G.J., MECCARIELLO R., MORIS I.D.: Molecular characterization of a novel UT-A urea transporter isoform (UT-A5) in testis. Amer. J. Physiol., 2000, 279: C1425-C1431.

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  9. 9.

    FRITZ I.B., LYON M.F., SETCHELL B.P.: Evidence for a defective seminiferous tubule barrier in testes of Tfm and Sxr mice. J. Reprod. Fertil., 1983, 67: 359–363.

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  10. 10.

    GHINEA N., HAI M.T.V., GROYER-PICARD M.T., MILGROM E.: How protein hormones reach their target cells. Receptor mediated transcytosis of hCG through endothelial cells. J. Cell Biol., 1994, 125: 87–97.

    PubMed  Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  11. 11.

    GOLDMANN E.E.: Die äussere und innere Sekretion des gesunden und kranken Organismus im Lichte der “vitalen Färbung”. Beitr. Klin. Chirug., 1909, 64: 192–265.

    Google Scholar 

  12. 12.

    HAGENÄS L., PLÖEN L., RITZEN E.M., EKWALL H.: Blood-testis barrier: Maintained function of inter-Sertoli cell junctions in experimental cryptorchidism in the rat, as judged by a simple lanthanum-immersion technique. Andrologia, 1977, 9: 3–7.

    Google Scholar 

  13. 13.

    HOLASH J.A., HARIK S.I., PERRY G., STEWART P.A.: Barrier properties of testis microvessels. Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. USA., 1993, 90: 11069–11073.

    PubMed  Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  14. 14.

    HUANG H.F.S., YANG C.S., MEYENHOFER M., GOULD S., BOCCABELLA A.V.: Disruption of sustentacular (Sertoli) cell tight junctions and regression of spermatogenesis in vitamin-A-deficient rats. Acta Anat., 1988, 133: 10–15.

    PubMed  Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  15. 15.

    JAHNUKAINEN K., HOU M., PETERSEN C., SETCHELL B., SÖDER O.: Intratesticular transplantation of testicular germ cell from leukemic rats causes transmission of leukemia. Cancer Res. 2001: in press.

  16. 16.

    JOHNSON K.J., HALL E.S., BOEKELHEIDE K.: 2,5-Hexanedione exposure alters rat Sertoli cell cytoskeleton 1. Microtubules and seminiferous tubule fluid secretion. Toxicol. Appl. Pharmacol., 1991, 111: 432–442.

    PubMed  Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  17. 17.

    KORMANO M.: Dye permeability and alkaline phosphatase activity of testicular capillaries in the postnatal rat. Histochemie, 1967, 9: 327–338.

    PubMed  Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  18. 18.

    LAPORTE P., GILLET J.: Influence de la spermatogenese sur la secretion du fluide testiculaire chez le rat adulte. C. R. Acad. Sci. Paris, 1975, 281: 1397–1400.

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  19. 19.

    LAWRENSON J.G., GHABRIEL M.N., REID A.R., GAJREE T.N., ALLT G.: Differential expression of an endothelial barrier antigen between the CNS and PNS. J. Anat., 1995, 186: 217–221.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  20. 20.

    LEVINE N., MARSH D.J.: Micropuncture study of the fluid composition of ‘Sertoli cell-only’ tubules in rats. J. Reprod. Fertil., 1975, 43: 547–549.

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  21. 21.

    LEVY S., SERRE V., HERMO L., ROBAIRE B.: The effects of aging on the seminiferous epithelium and the blood-testis barrier of the Brown Norway rat. J. Androl., 1999, 20: 356–365.

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  22. 22.

    MEYER J.M., MEZRAHID P., VIGNON F., CHABRIER G., REISS D., RUMPLER Y.: Sertoli cell barrier dysfunction and spermatogenetic cycle breakdown in the human testis: a lanthanum study. Int. J. Androl., 1996, 19: 190–198.

    PubMed  Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  23. 23.

    MORALES A., CAVICCHIA J.C.: Seasonal changes of the blood-testis barrier in viscacha: a freeze-fracture and lanthanum study. Anat. Rec., 1993, 236: 459–464.

    PubMed  Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  24. 24.

    NICANDER L.: An electon microscopical study of cell contacts in the seminiferous tubules of some mammals. Z. Zellforsch., 1967, 83: 375–397.

    PubMed  Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  25. 25.

    OGAWA T., DOBRINSKI I., BRINSTER R.L.: Recipient preparation is critical for spermatogonial transplantation in the rat. Tissue Cell, 1999, 31: 461–472.

    PubMed  Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  26. 26.

    OGAWA T., DOBRINSKI I., AVARBOCK M.R., BRINSTER R.L.: Transplantation of male germ line stem cells restores fertility in infertile mice. Nature Medicine, 2000, 6: 29–34.

    PubMed  Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  27. 27.

    O’DONNELL L., STANTON P.G., BARTLES J.R., ROBERTSON D.M.: Sertoli cell ectoplasmic specializations in the seminiferous epithelium of the testosterone-suppressed adult rat. Biol. Reprod., 2000, 63: 99–108.

    PubMed  Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  28. 28.

    PELLETIER RM.: Cyclic formation and decay of the blood-testis barrier in the mink. Am. J. Anat., 1986, 175: 91–117.

    PubMed  Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  29. 29.

    PLÖEN L., SETCHELL B.P.: Blood-testis barriers revisited: a hommage to Lennart Nicander. Int. J. Androl., 1992, 15: 1–4.

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  30. 30.

    POGACH L.M., LEE Y., GOULD S., GIGLIO W., MEYENHOFER M., HUANG H.F.S. Characterization of cis-platinum Sertoli cell dysfunction in rodents. Toxicol. Appl. Pharmacol., 1989, 98: 350–361.

    PubMed  Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  31. 31.

    RISLEY M.S., TAN I.P., ROY C., SAEZ J.C.: Cell-, age- and stage-dependent distribution of connexin 43 gap junctions in testes. J. Cell Sci., 1991, 103: 81–96.

    Google Scholar 

  32. 32.

    RUSSELL L.: Movement of spermatocytes from the basal to the adluminal compartment of the rat testis. Am. J. Anat., 1977, 148: 313–328.

    PubMed  Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  33. 33.

    SCHINKEL A.H., WAGENAAR E., MOL CAAM., VAN DEEMTER L.: P-Glycoprotein in the blood-brain barrier of mice influence the brain penetration and pharmacological activity of many drugs. J. Clin. Invest., 1996, 97: 2517–2524.

    PubMed  Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  34. 34.

    SCHLATT S.: Prospects and problems for germ cell transplantation in the male. Int. J. Androl., 1999, 22: 13–18.

    PubMed  Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  35. 35.

    SETCHELL B.P.: Possible physiological bases for contraceptive techniques in the male. Hum. Reprod., 1994, 9: 1081–1087.

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  36. 36.

    SETCHELL B.P., WAITES G.M.H.: Changes in the permeability of testicular capillaries and of the “blood-testis barrier” after injection of cadmium chloride in the rat. J. Endocrinol., 1970, 41: 81–86.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  37. 37.

    SETCHELL B.P., WAITES G.M.H.: The blood-testis barrier. In: Hamilton DW., Greep RO. eds. Handbook of Physiology, Section 7, Endocrinology, Volume V, Male Reproductive System. Washington D.C., American Physiological Society, 1975: 143–172.

    Google Scholar 

  38. 38.

    SETCHELL B.P., SCOTT T.W., VOGLMAYR J.K., WAITES G.M.H.: Characteristics of testicular spermatozoa and the fluid which transports them into the epididymis. Biol. Reprod., 1969, (Suppl 1): 40–66.

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  39. 39.

    SETCHELL B.P., VOGLMAYR J.K., WAITES G.M.H.: A blood-testis barrier restricting passage from blood into rete testis fluid but not into lymph. J. Physiol., 1969, 200: 73–85.

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  40. 40.

    SETCHELL B.P., TAO L., ZUPP J.L.: The penetration of chromium-EDTA from blood plasma into various compartments of rat testes, as an indicator of function of the blood-testis barrier, following exposure of the testes to heat. J. Reprod. Fertil., 1996, 106: 125–133.

    PubMed  CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  41. 41.

    TAO L., ZUPP J.L., SETCHELL B.P.: Effect of efferent duct ligation on the function of the blood-testis barrier. J. Reprod. Fertil., 2000, 120: 13–18.

    PubMed  Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  42. 42.

    TUCK R.R., quoted by SETCHELL B.P., DAVIS R.V., GLADWELL R.T.,et al.: The movement of fluid in the seminiferous tubules and rete testis. Ann. Biol. Anim. Bioch. Biophys., 1978, 18: 623–632.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  43. 43.

    TUCK R.R., SETCHELL B.P., WAITES G.M.H., YOUNG J.A.: The composition of fluid collected by micropuncture and catheterization from the seminiferous tubules and rete testis of rats. Pflugers Archiv., 1970, 318: 225–243.

    PubMed  Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  44. 44.

    VOGLMAYR J.K., WAITES G.M.H., SETCHELL B.P.: Studies on spermatozoa and fluid collected directly from the testis of the conscious ram. Nature (London), 1966, 210: 861–863.

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  45. 45.

    VOGLMAYR J.K., SCOTT T.W., SETCHELL B.P., WAITES G.M.H.: Metabolism of testicular spermatozoa and characteristics of testicular fluid collected from the conscious ram. J. Reprod. Fertil., 1967, 14: 87–99.

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  46. 46.

    WAITES G.M.H.: Fluid secretion. In: Johnson A.D., Gomes W.R. eds. The Testis, Vol. IV, New York, Academic press, 91–123.

  47. 47.

    WEBER JE., TURNER TT., TUNG KSK., RUSSELL LD.: Effects of cytochalasin D on the integrity of the Sertoli cell (blood-testis) barrier. Am. J. Anat., 1988, 182: 130–147.

    PubMed  Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  48. 48.

    WIJNHOLDS J., SCHEFFER G.L., VAN DER VALK M., VAN DER VALK P., BEIJNEN J.H., SCHEPER R.J., BORST P.: Multidrug resistance protein 1 protects the oropharyngeal mucosal layer and the testicular tubules against drug-induced damage. J. Exp. Med., 1998, 188: 797–808.

    PubMed  Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

Download references

Author information

Affiliations

Authors

Corresponding author

Correspondence to B. P. Setchell.

Additional information

Communication au XVIIème Congrès de la SALF, 7–8 décembre 2000, Bordeaux

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Cite this article

Setchell, B.P. Physiologie de la Barrière Sang-Testicule. Androl. 11, 15–20 (2001). https://doi.org/10.1007/BF03034506

Download citation

Mots Clés

  • Barrière
  • transport
  • testicule
  • Sertoli
  • spermatogenèse
  • leucémie

Key words

  • Barrier
  • transport
  • testis
  • Sertoli
  • spermatogenesis
  • leukemia
\