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Neurotransmetteurs cérébraux et contrôle du comportement sexuel masculin

Resume

Des progrès importants, quoiqu'encore parcellaires, ont été accomplis dans la compréhension du rôle que jouent les neurotransmetteurs mono-aminergiques et peptidergiques dans le contrôle du comportement sexuel (CS) animal, et à un moindre degré humain. Parmi les mono-amines, la dopamine stimule tous les aspects du CS chez l'animal et au moins l'érection chez l'homme. La noradrénaline semble impliquée dans un tonus adrénergique central inhibiteur s'exprimant par l'intermédiaire des récepteurs alpha 2. La sérotonine exerce des effects inhibiteurs ou stimulants selon le type de récepteur concerné, et peut particulièrement induire chez le rat un comportement de type éjaculation prématurée, alors que les inhibiteurs de sa recapture améliorent la dysfonction correspondante chez l'homme. Parmi les neuropeptides, les substances opioïdes et particulièrement la bétaendorphine inhibent tous les aspects du CS, et sont probablement des intermédiaires des effects du stress sur la sexualité. De nombreux autres peptides sont capables d'affecter le CS dans certains protocoles expérimentaux, mais leur implication physiologique n'est pas connue. Ceux dont les effects sont les plus spectaculaires sont la somatostatine, l'ocytocine, et le neuropeptide Y. Certaines données permettent d'espérer qu'on puisse tirer à moyen terme un bénéfice thérapeutique de manipulations de la dopamine, la noradrénaline, la sérotonine, ou des opioïdes centraux dans les dysfonctions sexuelles de l'homme. Ces progrès sont pour l'instant limités par l'importance des effects indésirables extrasexuels, eux-mêmes fonction de la spécificité insuffisante des agonistes ou antagonistes utilisés.

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Buvat, J. Neurotransmetteurs cérébraux et contrôle du comportement sexuel masculin. Androl. 6, 184–199 (1996). https://doi.org/10.1007/BF03034448

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Mots clés

  • Comportement sexuel
  • neurotransmetteurs
  • neuropeptides
  • dopamine
  • noradrénaline
  • serotonine
  • béta-endorphine
  • opioïdes
  • somatostatine
  • ocytocine
  • neuropeptide Y
  • CRH, ACTH
  • alphaMSH
  • LHRH
  • Angiotensine II
  • Substance P