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Composition lipidique membranaire durant la préparation de spermatozoïdes à la fécondation

Resume

Il existe des différences dans la composition lipidique des membranes plasmique, acrosomique, nucléaire et mitochondriale des spermatozoïdes. Les principaux phospholipides membranaires sont la phosphatidylcholine, la phosphatidyl éthanolamine et la sphingomyéline. La membrane plasmique du spermatozoïde est également riche en acides gras polyinsaturés (AGPI) fixés aux phospholipides. On y observe des dérivés comme C182 n−6, C204 n−6 et des teneurs importantes en acide docosahéxaenoïque (C226 n6).

La quantité de lipides membranaires du sperme humain varie considérablement d'un sujet à l'autre. Ces variations cependant, pourront influencer certaines propriétés fonctionnelles du spermatozoïde telle que la capacitation, la réaction acrosomique et l'expression fusiogène des membranes.

La composition lipidique membranaire peut être altérée au cours de la congélation-décongélation du sperme. Une diminution significative des phospholipides et des AGPI, en particulier l'acide docosahéxaenoïque et l'acide arachidonique, a été observée. Le changement le plus important constaté dans l'architecture lipidique membranaire du sperme congelé-décongelé est une translocation du diphosphatidylglycérol (cardiolipide) du feuillet interne vers le feuillet externe. Un tel changement pourrait avoir un effet délétère sur la réaction acrosomique du spermatozoïde.

Le sperme humain a un rapport molaire cholestérol/phospholipides ≤1.0 et celui-ci décroît par perte du cholestérol pendant la capacitation. Outre la diminution du cholestérol, la méthylation des phospholipides intervient dans les modifications de la fluidité et sur la maturation des récepteurs de la membrane plasmique du spermatozoïde.

Abstract

The final modifications that the spermatozoa undergo correspond with the destabilization of their plasma membrane. This indispensable step facilitates the fusion of membranes and primes the signal transduction during fertilization. This destabilization is composed of a series of changes and modulation of the lipids in membranes such as cholestérol, phospholipids and glycolipids.

Several differences exist in the lipid composition of the plasma, acrosome, nuclear and mitochondrial membranes of spermatozoa. The principal membrane phospholipids are phosphatidyl choline, phosphatidyl ethanolamine and sphingomyelin. Plasma membrane of sperm is also rich in polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) linked to phospholipids. Such as C182n−6, C204n−6 and large amounts of docosahexaenoic acid (C226n−6).

The amount of membrane lipids in human sperm varies considerably between patients. This variation, could influence certain functional properties of the sperm cells such as their ability to undergo capacitation, the acrosome reaction and the fusion between sperm and oocyte membranes.

The lipid composition of the human sperm cell can be altered during the process of freezing-thawing. A significant decrease in phospholipids (phosphatidyl choline, phosphatidyl ethanolamine), and PUFA in particular docosahexaenoic acid and arachidonic acid was observed. Human spermatozoa have a molar cholestérol/phopholipid ratio ≤1.0, and reduces during capacitation due to loss of cholestérol. In addition, the decrease in the levels of cholestérol and the methylation of phospholipids is involved in the modification of membrane fluidity and in the maturation of the sperm plasma membrane receptors. Therefore it seems that the methylation is important for the fusion between sperm and oocyte membranes. Intrinsic sperm phospholipase A2 also plays a role in the destabilization of the plasma membrane by producing of lysophospholipid. Therefore this enzyme and free fatty acids are believed to play a role in the acrosome reaction, an indispensable event facilitating the fusion between sperm and oocyte membranes.

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Hamamah, S., Grizard, G., Lanson, M. et al. Composition lipidique membranaire durant la préparation de spermatozoïdes à la fécondation. Androl. 6, 141–149 (1996). https://doi.org/10.1007/BF03034441

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Mots clés

  • spermatozoïde
  • lipides
  • membrane plasmique
  • capacitation

Key words

  • Lipids
  • sperm
  • membrane
  • capacitation