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Fertilité de l’homme en fonction de l’âge

Male and age fertility

Résumé

L’objet de ce travail est d’analyser l’évolution des caractéristiques spermiques en fonction de l’âge.

Pour cette étude, nous avons analysé le spermogramme de 2126 hommes âgés de 20 à 64 ans qui ont consulté, dans le service de reproduction humaine de Clermont-Ferrand de 1980 à 1994, pour indications féminines d’une fécondation in vitro.

La recherche d’une liaison, entre l’âge du patient au moment du spermogramme et 10 paramètres spermiques, par l’étude d’une régression linéaire, n’a pas permis de mettre en évidence de corrélation significative entre l’âge et les paramètres étudiés.

La comparaison des valeurs moyennes par classes d’âge de 5 ans, a été effectuée pour le volume, la concentration en spermatozoïdes, le pourcentage de formes mobiles (normale, diminuée), le pourcentage de formes typiques et mobiles et le pourcentage de formes anormales.

Ces valeurs ne diffèrent pas significativement selon les classes d’âge étudiées.

Entre 20 et 60 ans, les paramètres essentiels de spermogramme semblent, en moyenne, indépendants de l’âge, ce qui permet de penser que la qualité de l’éjaculat est conservée jusqu’à 50/60ans.

Cependant, un biais de recrutement de la population étudiée et un grand étalement des valeurs pour un âge donné peuvent expliquer que nous n’ayons pas décelé des fluctuations des caractéristiques spermiques liées à l’âge.

Abstract

The aim of this work was to analyse the evolution of sperm characteristics according to age.

To this end we analysed the spermogram of 2,126 men aged 20 to 64 who came for consultation for feminine indications for in vitro fertilization at the Clermont-Ferrand Human Reproduction Unit during the period 1980 to 1994.

A search for a link between the age of the patient at the time of the spermogram and 10 sperm parameters, by studying a linear regression, did not reveal any evidence of a significant correlation between the age and the parameters studied.

The mean values for volume, concentration of spermatozoa, percentage of mobile forms (normal, diminished), percentage of typical and mobile forms and percentage of abnormal forms were compared for age classes covering 5 years.

These values showed no significant difference according to the age classes.

Between 20 and 60 years the essential parameters of the spermogram seem generally to be independent of age, from which it can be deduced that ejaculate quality remains the same until 50 years of age.

However a bias in the recruitment of the population studied and a very wide spread for the values for a given age mean that we may not have detected fluctuations in sperm characteristics linked with age.

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Mots Clés

  • Spermogramme
  • Age Fertilité

Key-Words

  • Sperm count
  • Age and Fertility