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Table 1 General characteristics of the study population across categories of serum vitamin D

From: Is there a relationship between serum vitamin D and semen parameters? A cross-sectional sample of the Iranian infertile men

Variable Categories of serum vitamin D P-value†
Deficient (< 10 ng/ml) Insufficient (10–20 ng/ml) Sufficient (> 20 ng/ml)
N 67 119 164  
Demographic information
 Age (year) 32.57 ± 0.98 35.85 ± 0.83 34.89 ± 0.53 0.025
 Weight (kg) 81.59 ± 1.57 82.29 ± 1.14 84.49 ± 1.17 0.240
 Height (cm) 174.75 ± 0.94 176.96 ± 0.65 176.90 ± 0.60 0.104
 BMI (kg/m2) 26.68 ± 0.42 26.25 ± 0.30 26.98 ± 0.32 0.272
 Serum vitamin D (ng/mL) 7.20 ± 0.21 14.78 ± 0.28 29.37 ± 0.51 < 0.001
 University education 36 (53.7) 61 (51.3) 80 (48.8) 0.480
 Employee 26 (38.8) 44 (37.0) 52 (31.7) 0.149
 Current smoker 28 (41.8) 48 (40.3) 65 (39.6) 0.767
 Having varicocele 23 (34.3) 57 (47.9) 70 (42.7) 0.443
Semen parameters
 Semen volume (mL) 3.51 ± 0.27 3.51 ± 0.13 4.18 ± 0.17 0.009
 Sperm count (×106/mL) 36.44 ± 4.75 43.77 ± 3.08 48.28 ± 2.72 0.068
 Sperm total motility (%) 24.96 ± 2.93 38.36 ± 1.82 43.28 ± 1.64 < 0.001
 Normal morphology (%) 5.54 ± 0.47 6.76 ± 0.28 7.77 ± 0.22 < 0.001
 Azoospermia
  Yes 39 (58.2) 57 (47.9) 72 (43.9) 0.058
  No 28 (41.8) 62 (52.1) 92 (56.1)
Dietary intake
 Total energy (kcal/d) 1757.32 ± 72.78 1684.90 ± 47.97 1695.50 ± 40.47 0.652
 Carbohydrate (g/d) 246.19 ± 3.64 243.99 ± 2.56 249.66 ± 2.48 0.286
 Protein (g/d) 61.89 ± 1.44 61.62 ± 1.07 62.98 ± 0.90 0.597
 Total fat (g/d) 56.60 ± 1.58 57.82 ± 1.05 54.85 ± 1.01 0.139
 Total fiber (g/d) 17.55 ± 0.74 17.95 ± 0.53 18.31 ± 0.46 0.665
  1. Data are presented as mean ± standard error or number (% within categories of serum vitamin D)
  2. Continuous variables calculated by analysis of variance (ANOVA) and categorical variables by Chi-square test
  3. P < 0.05 was considered statistically significant
  4. BMI Body Mass Index