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Table 1 Methods of male contraception

From: RISUG® as a male contraceptive: journey from bench to bedside

MethodAdvantagesDisadvantagesReferences
AbstinenceNo side effects.
No cost.
Difficult to abstain for long duration.[4]
WithdrawalNo Cost.High risk of pregnancy if not withdrawn at time.
Pregnancy may occur by pre-ejaculate.
[10]
Male condomsEasy availability.
Helps in prevention of STIs.
Decrease spontaneity.
May break during use.
High failure rate.
[11, 12]
Hormonal approachesNon-surgical procedure.Lack of uniform efficacy, Complex formulations, Impractical systemic delivery system, Poor availability, High cost[13,14,15,16]
Immuno-contraceptivesTarget specific effect.
Long-term efficacy.
No surgical interventions.
Still under research phase.[17, 18]
Non-injectable PlugsNo-scalpel method.
Size available according to vas, thus avoids vas rupture.
Lower efficacy.
Delayed azoospermia
Reversal – less assured
[19, 20]
VasectomySafe and effective.
Risk involved in surgical intervention.
Microsurgical skills required.
Antisperm antibody development.
Reversal is expensive and partially successful.
[5, 21]
Non-Scalpel VasectomyNo surgical procedure.
Easy technique.
High efficiency.
Reversal is expensive and partially successful.[22, 23]
RISUG®Easy approach.
Single intervention.
Early contraception
Minimal systemic interference.
No undue side effects.
Better scope for reversal.
No protection against Sexually Transmitted Diseases (STDs).[24, 25]