|Abstinence||No side effects.|
|Difficult to abstain for long duration.|||
|Withdrawal||No Cost.||High risk of pregnancy if not withdrawn at time.|
Pregnancy may occur by pre-ejaculate.
|Male condoms||Easy availability.|
Helps in prevention of STIs.
May break during use.
High failure rate.
|Hormonal approaches||Non-surgical procedure.||Lack of uniform efficacy, Complex formulations, Impractical systemic delivery system, Poor availability, High cost||[13,14,15,16]|
|Immuno-contraceptives||Target specific effect.|
No surgical interventions.
|Still under research phase.||[17, 18]|
|Non-injectable Plugs||No-scalpel method.|
Size available according to vas, thus avoids vas rupture.
Reversal – less assured
|Vasectomy||Safe and effective.|
Risk involved in surgical intervention.
|Microsurgical skills required.|
Antisperm antibody development.
Reversal is expensive and partially successful.
|Non-Scalpel Vasectomy||No surgical procedure.|
|Reversal is expensive and partially successful.||[22, 23]|
Minimal systemic interference.
No undue side effects.
Better scope for reversal.
|No protection against Sexually Transmitted Diseases (STDs).||[24, 25]|