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Table 2 Association between sleep parameters and reduced semen quality

From: Associations of bedtime, sleep duration, and sleep quality with semen quality in males seeking fertility treatment: a preliminary study

VariableUnadjustedAdjusted
B (SE)Odds Ratio (95% CI)P-valueB (SE)Odds Ratio (95% CI)P-value
Model 1 (Bedtime)
 Early Bedtime (8:00 PM - 10:29 PM)Reference1.00 (reference) Reference1.00 (reference) 
 Regular Bedtime (10:30 PM - 11:29 PM)0.84 (0.45)2.31 (0.95, 5.6)0.071.01 (0.48)2.75 (1.1, 7.1)0.04*
 Late Bedtime (11:30 PM - 1:59 AM)1.25 (0.61)3.50 (1.1, 11.5)0.04*1.38 (0.62)3.97 (1.2, 13.5)0.03*
Model 2 (Sleep duration)
 Very Short Sleep Duratio (< 7 h)1.83 (0.68)6.22 (1.6, 23.8)0.01*1.82 (0.70)6.18 (1.6, 24.2)0.01*
 Short Sleep Duration (7.0–7.49 h)1.33 (0.60)3.77 (1.2, 12.3)0.03*1.36 (0.61)3.88 (1.2, 12.9)0.03*
 Conventional Sleep Duration (7.5–7.9 h)Reference1.00 (reference) Reference1.00 (reference) 
 Long Sleep Duration (≥8.0 h)0.70 (0.62)2.02 (0.6, 6.8)0.250.75 (0.65)2.11 (0.6, 7.5)0.25
Model 3 (Sleep Quality)
 Optimal Sleep Quality (PSQI ≤6)Reference1.00 (reference) Reference1.00 (reference) 
 Borderline Sleep Quality (PSQI 7–8)0.16 (0.53)1.2 (0.4, 3.3)0.770.17 (0.54)1.19 (0.4, 3.4)0.75
 Poor Sleep Quality (PSQI ≥9)0.89 (0.53)2.43 (0.9, 6.8)0.090.89 (0.55)2.43 (0.8, 7.1)0.11
  1. Calculations are based on binary logistic regressions modelling the association between sleep parameters and semen quality in relation to the reference group. Odds ratio: odds of reporting reduced semen quality. Model 1: investigates association between bedtimes and semen quality. Model 2: investigates association between sleep durations and semen quality. Model 3: investigates association between sleep quality and semen quality. Adjusted models include age, smoking status, and alcohol consumption. B: beta-coefficient, SE: standard error, 95% CI: 95% confidence interval. PSQI Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index global score. *Significant at p < 0.05