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Table 2 Pathophysiology of cryptorchidism induced infertility. Treatment with GnRH permanently stimulates alternative pathway to induce transition of gonocytes and undifferentiated spermatogonia into Ad spermatogonia

From: On the descent of the epididymo-testicular unit, cryptorchidism, and prevention of infertility

FGFR1 FGFR1 FGFR1 ↓
PROK2 PROK2 PROK2 ↓
│ ← GnRH
GnRH GnRH EGR2 / EGR3
EGR4 / PITX1 EGR4 /PITX1 LH
LH LH HSD17 B2
CYP19A1
Testosterone Testosterone Testosterone
T-brachyury,POU2F2 T-brachyury POU2F2 T-brachyury
Ad No Ad Ad
Fertility Infertility Fertility