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Fig. 3 | Basic and Clinical Andrology

Fig. 3

From: Interactions between oestrogen and 1α,25(OH)2-vitamin D3 signalling and their roles in spermatogenesis and spermatozoa functions

Fig. 3

Interactions between genomic and nongenomic action of 1,25-D3 and oestrogens.1,25-D3 can bind VDR localized at the plasma membrane or intracellular VDR and could regulate Cyp19 and ERα gene expression, aromatase activity and estradiol production. Estradiol can regulate VDR gene expression by ESR2 localized at the plasma membrane and Cyp19 gene expression. E2: estradiol, 1,25-D3: 1α,25 dihydroxyvitamin D3, ESR1/2: estrogen receptor 1 and 2, GPER: G protein coupled estrogen receptor, VDRmem: vitamin D receptor localized at the plasma membrane, VDRnuc: nuclear vitamin D receptor, VDRE: vitamin D responsive element, ERE: oestrogen responsive element

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