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Table 1 Overview of procedures for processing and selection of surgically retrieved sperm

From: Processing and selection of surgically-retrieved sperm for ICSI: a review

  Clinical procedure Laboratory procedure Specific sperm selection procedure
Obstructive azoospermia MESA/PESA double washing or  
   density gradient centrifugation  
  TESA/FNA immediate use  
  TESE mechanical processing + washing  
Non-obstructive azoospermia micro-TESE mechanical processing +  
   immediate use immotile sperm selection if needed
  TESE mechanical processing + washing (or) immotile sperm selection if needed
   mechanical processing + washing + ELB (or) immotile sperm selection if needed
   mechanical processing + enzymatic processing  
   + washing (+ ELB) immotile sperm selection if needed:
    - MTT
    - HOST
    - LAISS
    - PTF/theophylline
    - LAISS
    - (BFM)