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Table 4 Effects of increase in testis temperature (testes in the superficial inguinal pouch) on sperm number in men

From: Hormonal, chemical and thermal inhibition of spermatogenesis: contribution of French teams to international data with the aim of developing male contraception in France

Authors Heating Nb a Effect on sperm number
Method Daily duration Frequency   During heating After heating
Period
w b
Mean
value
Start
w
Max.
value
Mieusset et al. 1985 [92] Testes in the superficial inguinal pouch; special underwear c
SAT d +2 °C
15 h Every day for 6 months 14 w 4
w 12
w 25
54% e
29%
13%
w8
w16
w29
w37
73% f
89%
133%
159%
Every day for 12 months 8 w 25 to w 52 from 13 to 5% w10
w16
w37
60%
72%
129%
Mieusset et al. 1987 [93] Tech 1: same as previous [92]
SAT +2 °C
15 h Every day for 6–24 months 13 9
w 18
w 36
w 45
58%
28%
14%
8%
w9
w18
w36
40%
80%
120%
Tech 2 = Tech 1 + reinforcement of the hole
SAT +2 °C
Every day for 6–24 months 6 w 9
w 18
w 36
w 45
28%
3.5%
4.5%
<1%
w9
w18
w36
10%
60%
100%
Shafik 1991 [83] Testes in the superficial inguinal pouch (stitch suspension technique) SAT +2 °C Day and night Every day for 12 months 15
SC g > 40
w 13:
1 < SC i >10 in 2/15
11 < SC > 20 in 13/15
w 26:
SC = 0 in 2/15
0 < SC > 1 in 5/15
2 < SC > 10 in 8/15
NR h NC i
w 26:
SC > 40 in 15/15
Ball suspension
SAT +2 °C
Every day for 12 months 13
SC > 40
w 13:
1 < SC > 10 in 2/13
11 < SC > 20 in 11/13
w 26:
SC = 0 in 2/13
0 < SC > 1 in 5/13
2 < SC > 10 in 6/13
NR NC
w 26:
SC > 40 in 13/13
Shafik 1992 [94] Suspensory sling of polyester
fabric j
SAT +2 °C
Day and night Every day for 12 months 14
SC > 40
w 13: SC < 1 in 4/14
2 < SC > 10 in 10/14
w 26:
SC = 0 in 14/14
w 5–9 NC
w 26:
SC > 40 in 14/14
Moeloek 1995 [95] Suspensory sling as used by
Shafik 1992 [94]
Day and night Every day for 24 weeks 10
SC > 20
w 12: SC < 20 in 4/10
w 24:
SC < 20 in 10/10
SC < 10 in 3/10
NR NR
Ahmad et al. 2012 [96] Tech 3: Tech 2 [93] + improved material SAT +2 °C 15 h Every day for 17 weeks 5 w 1
w 3
w 5
w 7
w 10
78%
92%
16%
3.5%
0.5%
w5
w7
w10
2.5%
22%
124%
  1. Legend: a number of men; b weeks; c testes pushed up and maintained in the superficial inguinal pouch by exteriorization of penis and scrotum through a hole in specially designed underwear; d scrotal achieved temperature; e mean value of total sperm number/initial total sperm number (%); f maximal value of total sperm number/initial total sperm number (%); g sperm count in million/mL; h NR not reported; i NC not calculable; j with penis uncovered and testes elevated towards the abdomen