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Table 4 Effects of increase in testis temperature (testes in the superficial inguinal pouch) on sperm number in men

From: Hormonal, chemical and thermal inhibition of spermatogenesis: contribution of French teams to international data with the aim of developing male contraception in France

Authors Heating Nb a Effect on sperm number
Method Daily duration Frequency   During heating After heating
Period w b Mean value Start w Max. value
Mieusset et al. 1985 [92] Testes in the superficial inguinal pouch; special underwear c SAT d +2 °C 15 h Every day for 6 months 14 w 4 w 12 w 25 54% e 29% 13% w8 w16 w29 w37 73% f 89% 133% 159%
Every day for 12 months 8 w 25 to w 52 from 13 to 5% w10 w16 w37 60% 72% 129%
Mieusset et al. 1987 [93] Tech 1: same as previous [92] SAT +2 °C 15 h Every day for 6–24 months 13 9 w 18 w 36 w 45 58% 28% 14% 8% w9 w18 w36 40% 80% 120%
Tech 2 = Tech 1 + reinforcement of the hole SAT +2 °C Every day for 6–24 months 6 w 9 w 18 w 36 w 45 28% 3.5% 4.5% <1% w9 w18 w36 10% 60% 100%
Shafik 1991 [83] Testes in the superficial inguinal pouch (stitch suspension technique) SAT +2 °C Day and night Every day for 12 months 15 SC g > 40 w 13: 1 < SC i >10 in 2/15 11 < SC > 20 in 13/15 w 26: SC = 0 in 2/15 0 < SC > 1 in 5/15 2 < SC > 10 in 8/15 NR h NC i w 26: SC > 40 in 15/15
Ball suspension SAT +2 °C Every day for 12 months 13 SC > 40 w 13: 1 < SC > 10 in 2/13 11 < SC > 20 in 11/13 w 26: SC = 0 in 2/13 0 < SC > 1 in 5/13 2 < SC > 10 in 6/13 NR NC w 26: SC > 40 in 13/13
Shafik 1992 [94] Suspensory sling of polyester fabric j SAT +2 °C Day and night Every day for 12 months 14 SC > 40 w 13: SC < 1 in 4/14 2 < SC > 10 in 10/14 w 26: SC = 0 in 14/14 w 5–9 NC w 26: SC > 40 in 14/14
Moeloek 1995 [95] Suspensory sling as used by Shafik 1992 [94] Day and night Every day for 24 weeks 10 SC > 20 w 12: SC < 20 in 4/10 w 24: SC < 20 in 10/10 SC < 10 in 3/10 NR NR
Ahmad et al. 2012 [96] Tech 3: Tech 2 [93] + improved material SAT +2 °C 15 h Every day for 17 weeks 5 w 1 w 3 w 5 w 7 w 10 78% 92% 16% 3.5% 0.5% w5 w7 w10 2.5% 22% 124%
  1. Legend: a number of men; b weeks; c testes pushed up and maintained in the superficial inguinal pouch by exteriorization of penis and scrotum through a hole in specially designed underwear; d scrotal achieved temperature; e mean value of total sperm number/initial total sperm number (%); f maximal value of total sperm number/initial total sperm number (%); g sperm count in million/mL; h NR not reported; i NC not calculable; j with penis uncovered and testes elevated towards the abdomen