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Table 1 Overview of preoperative factors considered for prediction of micro-TESE outcome

From: Predictive factors of successful microdissection testicular sperm extraction

Predictive factors of micro-TESE Comments
Serum FSH FSH, although a good predictor of global testicular function, does not serve by itself as a predictor of successful micro-TESE, but models have shown some predictive value when used in conjunction with other variables [14, 1922]
Serum Inhibin B Inhibin B, like FSH, does not serve as a good predictor of micro-TESE by itself, but models have shown predictive value when used in conjunction with other variables [15, 19]
Histopathology Histopathology is likely the greatest single predictor of successful micro-TESE, but the requirement of a separate surgical procedure for diagnosis makes its role very limited [35, 59]
Testicular volume The data on testicular volume and its predictive value for micro-TESE is limited, and suggests that it is not a good predictive variable for micro-TESE [36, 37]
Genetics Genetics, particularly Y chromosome microdeletions, are very helpful in predicting success of micro-TESE; men with AZFc microdeletions have very good chance of successful micro-TESE, whereas those men with AZFa or AZFb have a low probability of success [6, 39]
Klinefelter’s Syndrome (KS) Men with KS have successful micro-TESE rates similar to or better than all men with NOA, and KS itself is a good prognostic factor for sperm retrieval [43, 45]
Age While advanced paternal age may play a role in decreased pregnancy rates, the limited studies thus far show that it does not play a predictive role for micro-TESE (unpublished data)
Cryptorchidism Men with a history of cryptorchidism have successful micro-TESE rates to men without cryptorchidism, suggesting that it does not play a predictive role in the success of micro-TESE [50]
Varicocele The need for varicocelectomy in men with a varicocele and NOA prior to micro-TESE is debated, but men with a clinical varicocele who undergo varicocelectomy prior to micro-TESE have higher sperm retrieval rates compared to men with all other causes of NOA, suggesting that varicocele repair is a positive prognostic factor for men undergoing micro-TESE [55, 57, 58]