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Table 1 Studies on the relationship between the presence of large sperm vacuoles and chromatin condensation, DNA fragmentation and aneuploidy

From: Intracytoplasmic morphologically selected sperm injection (IMSI): a critical and evidence-based review

References Patients Sperm cells Vacuoles Altered/abnormal chromatin packaging DNA fragmentation Aneuploidy
Boitrelle et al., [23] 15 450 ≥ 25% head area + = =
Perdrix et al., [22] 20   >13% head area + Higher in native spermatozoa +
Garolla et al., [26] 20 200 LNV + NA +
Franco et al., [27] 66 1351 ≥ 50% head area + NA NA
Cassuto et al., [28] 26 10400 score 0a + = NA
Wilding et al., [14] 8 860 ≥ 4% head area NA + NA
Oliveira et al., [18] 538 200/patient 5- > 50% head area NA + NA
Franco et al., [29] 30 382 ≥ 50% head area NA + NA
Hammoud et al., [30] 8 1775 >4% head area NA + NA
Watanabe et al., [19] 20 227 >1.5 μm NA = NA
   33 >1.5 μm NA NA =
  1. LNV, large nuclear vacuole; NA, not assessed.
  2. ascore 0, according to the Cassuto-Barak classification, showing an abnormal head with a large diameter vacuole and an abnormal base. For DNA fragmentation and aneuploidy: =, equal between vacuolated and non-vacuolated spermatozoa ; +, increased in vacuolated spermatozoa.